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          乙未战争发生于什么时候?乙未战争的起因

            乙未战争又称乙未之役,意指中日甲午战争后,中国清朝于公元1895年(农历乙未年)被迫将台湾割让给日本帝国时,所发生的一连串台湾人民反抗日本统治的大小战役之总称,同时也是台湾岛历史上规模最大的一次战争。

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            公元1894年中日甲午战争清廷战败后,一纸马关条约将台湾、澎湖永久割让给日本,清廷的腐败决定让台湾人民悲愤至极,而世界各国也因各自的利益袖手旁观,台湾也在此孤立无援的情况下愤而自立自强,于清光绪二十一年(1895年)5月25日建立台湾民主国,同年夏初,日军在台湾北部的澳底(现今台湾台北县贡寮乡境内)登陆,同年秋末攻下台南城,维持不到五个月的台湾民主国正式瓦解,至此,全台仅剩台湾南部六堆地区的客家军还在跟日军周旋,直至11月26日六堆客家军于火烧庄(现今台湾屏东县长治乡长兴村)一役决战失利后,台湾人民抗日的乙未战争也随之终告落幕。此战从公元1895年5月29日日军登陆至同年11月底火烧庄战役持续了约近6个月,共造成台湾14000名士兵战死、无可计数的台湾义勇军牺牲及台湾人民无辜被屠杀,而对日本帝国军队于战役虽仅有164名的日本远征军战死,却也因为台湾的瘴疠致使日军4700名官士兵病死(其中还包括在日本颇有盛名的北白川宫能久亲王与山根信成少将)。

            1895年年初,缘由为朝鲜宗主权之争的清日甲午战争,因清接近败象与积极谋和而近尾声。日本首相伊藤博文与其日本内阁早已研议,不论是战还是和,都要以拿取辽东半岛与台湾作为此战争成果的打算。同年1月,萨摩藩为主的日本军队,约4000名陆军正规军所组成的5500名远征军,积极为登陆澎湖为目标而备战。1895年3月15日,该军队从广岛佐世保港秘密出港,并在3月23日清晨没遭到任何抵抗的登陆澎湖群岛最大岛:马公市所在的澎湖本岛的里正角。

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            另一方面,人数有步兵12营,炮兵2营,海军1营的驻澎湖清兵,因为装备老旧与甲午战争失利带来的士气低迷,并没有多少抵抗。期间驻澎湖厅最高主管,台南府粮捕海防通判陈步梯于战役发起不久后,也逃往中国大陆。因此,1895年3月24日,日军就以不到两天的时间占领澎湖首府,马公市。澎湖一役,日军死伤虽少,这段时间,日军水土不服,罹患霍乱的士兵,总数约一千七百名,死亡则达一千名。

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            1895年3月26日,已经拿到台湾海峡战略位置,确定可轻易拿取台湾的日本,在日本下关接受清朝的和议要求。

            1895年4月17日,百般努力谋和,却仍奉命以辽东半岛与台湾岛换取和平的李鸿章,签下了割让台湾的马关条约。早在此之前,得知澎湖被占领消息的台湾士绅已人心惶惶,在得知被"勒占领土"消息之后,部分清朝台湾官员与一些台湾士绅共同合作,于1895年5月23日宣布成立"台湾民主国",年号"永清"。原清国派驻台湾的巡抚唐景嵩被推为台湾民主国的总统、刘永福被推为大将军、丘逢甲则为义勇军统领。

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