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          辽沈、淮海和平津三大战役,哪个最惨烈?
          趣历史 2018-10-17 14:36:31

            解放战争中规模大、歼敌多的大决战,自然是辽沈、淮海和平津三大战役。但是,若问三大战役中哪次规模最大、歼敌最多、战况最激烈,则是1948年11月6日至1949年1月10日的淮海战役。

            战前,蒋介石声称:徐蚌会战是政权“存亡最大之关键”。

            战前,毛泽东两次发电报给华东野战军,说准备以10万到20万人的伤亡代价,去夺取决战的胜利。陈毅、粟裕等人后称毛泽东:“为推翻蒋家王朝,他下了最大的决心?!?/p>

          image.png

            这次战役,双方投入正规军兵力超过150万,规模之大,参战兵力之多为历史之巨。

            解放军有60万正规军,主要部队有:华东野战军全部主力15个纵队和1个特种兵纵队,第35军(吴化文部),华东军区地方部队,中原野战军全部主力7个纵队和中原军区地方部队等。

            国民党有80万正规军,主要参战部队有:国民党军徐州“剿总”司令部、前进指挥部,第2兵团5个军、第6兵团4个军、第7兵团5个军、第8兵团2个军、第12兵团4个军、第13兵团3 个军、第16兵团2个军,第1绥靖区5个军、第3绥靖区4个军等。

            淮海战役的进行难度之大,战斗之激烈,超出解放战争的所有战役。这次决战是蒋介石全力、拼力之战,但是华东野战军更为强悍、凶猛,其打恶仗、硬仗、大仗的战术、战略水平之高,达到了解放战争的高峰。

            经过66天的较量,国民党军伤亡及被俘55万,解放军伤亡仅华野就十余万。解放军共歼灭敌徐州“剿总”前进指挥部、5个兵团部、22个军部、56个师共计55.5万余人。这些部队大多是蒋嫡糸部队,看家部队,装备最为精良,战斗力最强。解放军在兵力装备上都处于劣势的情形下以少胜多,歼敌数量,远超二战中苏军进行的莫斯科会战和库尔斯特会战。

          image.png

            这次战役的胜利,解放军基本歼灭了蒋介石的南线精锐部队,解放了华东、中原广大地区,使敌长江防线和统治中心南京、上海都处于我军的直接威胁之下,成为取得解放战争决定性胜利的关键一仗。此后,国军再无力与共军主力决战。

            国民党军统帅部在战后检讨中,不得不承认:“国军遭受之失败,影响全局,最为重大,尤其是华东地区?!?/p>

            美国驻华军事顾问团团长巴达维将军在给美国陆军部的报告中说:“由于国民党政府在长江以北的失败所造成的耻辱,纵令时间容许,国民党政府是否能在华南取得必要的支持,动员这一地区的人力,以重建其军队,实属极端令人怀疑。国民党的完全失败,已是不可避免?!?/p>

          image.png

            美国驻华大使司徒雷登则认为:“蒋介石的军事力量实际上是崩溃了?!?/p>

            这个胜利的的直接影响是:三日之后,蒋介石宣布下野引退,即相当于“引咎辞职”。

            同一日,毛泽东宣布:“现在,人民解放军无论在数量上士气上和装备上均优于国民党反动派政府的残余军事力量。至此,中国人民才开始吐了一口气。现在情况很明显,只要解放军向残余的国民党军再作若干次重大攻击,国民党统治即将土崩瓦解,归于消亡?!?/p>

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