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          《竹书纪年》与《史记》有哪些不同的地方?《竹书纪年》在当今史学界的地位如何?

            《竹书纪年》对史学界的震撼,在于它所纪录的史料与《史记》所描述的不单只内容不同,而且价值取向相异。竹书纪年描述了从夏朝到战国时期历代所发生的血腥政变和军事冲突,根据《史记》所记载,商朝太甲伊尹囚禁3年后,伊尹见太甲改过自新,便郑重的将国家交给他。太甲复位后,沉痛接受教训,成为了一个勤政爱民、励精图治的圣君。不过,《竹书纪年》对此却有不同的描述:伊尹放逐太甲后,自立为王,7年后,太甲潜回杀掉篡位的伊尹,并改立伊尹的儿子伊陟和伊奋继承伊家。杜预说“此为大与《尚书》叙说大甲事乖异,不知老叟之伏生,或致昏忘,将此古书亦当时杂记,未足以取审也?!?/p>

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            竹书纪年早在汉代时就已经散佚。279年的西晋,一个位于今日河南省的魏王墓被盗挖,盗墓者被捕之余,亦同时让墓里的大批竹简出土。当时国家对这件事情非常重视,晋武帝命令中书监荀勖、中书令和峤负责翻译竹简(因为魏国文字和秦国的小篆差异颇大),竹简长度为古尺二尺四寸,每简四十字,凡十三篇,起于黄帝[4],周平王东迁后用晋国纪年,战国时期三家分晋后用魏国纪年。期间又遇上八王之乱等多次政治纷扰,秘书丞卫恒在从事“考正”时际被杀,使整理的进度大受打击,由卫恒的好友佐著作郎束皙续成。最后负责官员把史书纪录的部份整理好,并将之命名为《竹书纪年》?!吨袷榧湍辍范嗉墙胛汗?,一般将此书看成是魏国的史书。

            由于《史记》采用纪传体来记述事件,竹书纪年的出现,可以从另一角度审视史记内容,如“夏伯益”、“太甲杀伊尹”、“文丁杀季历”、“共伯和干王位”,与史书有极大差异。又如《竹书纪年》记载:“懿王元年,天再旦于?!?,可能是指公元前899年4月21日,郑(今天的陕西凤翔或华县)地区清晨时发生的日全蚀,可据此推定周懿王元年的真实年份(也有学者对这个说法存疑)。王国维在《今本竹书纪年疏证》中指出今本纪年中的周幽王六年(前776年)日食出自《诗经·小雅》“十月”和《新唐书·历志》“大衍历议日食”,本是周代的无年代日食纪录和唐代以前的计算结果。

            记载

            《晋书·卷五十一列传第二十一·束皙》:

            初,太康二年,汲郡人不准盗发魏襄王墓,或言安釐王冢,得竹书数十车。其《纪年》十三篇,记夏以来至周幽王为犬戎所灭,以事接之,三家分,仍述魏事至安釐王之二十年。盖魏国之史书,大略与《春秋》皆多相应。

            其中经传大异,则云夏年多殷;益干启位,启杀之;太甲杀伊尹;文丁杀季历;自周受命,至穆王百年,非穆王寿百岁也;幽王既亡,有共伯和者摄行天子事,非二相共和也。

            其《易经》二篇,与《周易》上下经同?!兑佐硪跹糌浴范?,与《周易》略同,《繇辞》则异?!敦韵乱拙芬黄?,似《说卦》而异?!豆锒巍范?,公孙段与邵陟论《易》?!豆铩啡?,言楚、晋事?!睹啡?,似《礼记》,又似《尔雅》、《论语》?!妒Υ骸芬黄?,书《左传》诸卜筮,“师春”似是造书者姓名也?!端鲇铩肥黄?,诸国卜梦妖怪相书也?!读呵鸩亍芬黄?,先叙魏之世数,次言丘藏金玉事?!督墒椤范?,论弋射法?!渡狻芬黄?,帝王所封?!洞罄范?,邹子谈天类也?!赌绿熳哟肺迤?,言周穆王游行四海,见帝台、西王母?!锻际芬黄?,画赞之属也。又杂书十九篇:《周食田法》,《周书》,《论楚事》,《周穆王美人盛姬死事》。大凡七十五篇,七篇简书折坏,不识名题。

            冢中又得铜剑一枚,长二尺五寸。漆书皆科斗字。初发冢者烧策照取宝物,及官收之,多烬简断札,文既残缺,不复诠次。武帝以其书付秘书校缀次第,寻考指归,而以今文写之。皙在著作,得观竹书,随疑分释,皆有义证。迁尚书郎。

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            附一《束皙其人》:

            束皙:晋代学者,“二十四史”之一《晋书》的《帝纪》就是出自他的手笔。据载,他是当时多闻博识而精于古文的学者,他生性恬淡,不慕名利,曾作《玄据释》以拟《客难》,从不拿学问作为争取荣华富贵的工具。因此,其学术造诣颇深,他撰写的《七代通志》、《三魏人士传》、《五经通论》、《发蒙记》等鞯著作,均被后世学者推崇备至。

            附二《束姓来历》:

            从《晋书·束皙传》记载考证,束姓是西汉高士汉疏广是后裔。王莽末年,疏广的曾孙孟达,对王莽篡政不满,莽“立新”后,孟达避难逃至东海沙鹿山,改姓束,自此出现了束姓。望族居南阳郡(今河南南阳县)。束姓名人还有:宋代有枢密都承旨束嘉,元代有画家束宗庚,明代有清官万载县令束清。

            附三《汤饼赋》:

            晋代束皙的文章《汤饼赋》曰:“玄冬猛寒,清晨之会,涕冻鼻中,霜凝口外。充虚解战,汤饼为最。弱似春绵,白若秋练。气勃郁以扬布,香气散而远遍。行人失涎于下风,童仆空瞧而斜眄。擎器者舐唇,立侍者干咽”。

            汤饼,如今叫面条。汉刘用《释名》说:“饼,并也,溲面使合并也。蒸制者日“蒸饼”,煮制者日“汤饼”或“煮饼”,炸制者日“油饼”,还有一种从西城引进的烤制饼,称胡饼。至晋时,汤饼已有成细条状的了。束皙之《讲赋》中描述下汤饼的情景:“于是火盛汤涌,猛气蒸作,振衣振裳。握〔溺字换成提手边〕拊搏,面弥高于指端,手索遇而交错,纷纷驳驳,星分雹落?!笔铺辣叭跞绱好?,白若秋练”。后庚阐《恶饼赋》有“王孙骇叹于曳绪,束子赋弱于春绵”之句,傅玄《七谟》有“乃有三牲之和羹,蕤宾之时面。忽游水而长引,进飞羽之薄衍,细如蜀茧之绪,靡如鲁缟之线”之说细如蜀茧之绪,靡如曾缟之线,实在已经很细了。

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            经过

            西晋初年,河南省汲县发生了一件大事,一个叫不准(音读“否标”)的盗墓贼,偷偷地掘开一座古墓。墓穴被打开后,由于墓中漆黑,不便寻找随葬品,他满地一划拉,摸得一把竹片。点着竹片用来照取宝物,并没像他所期待地那样发现金银财宝,呈现在眼前的是成片成捆的竹片,不准大失所望,因为对他来说这些东西毫无用处。他在失望之余,非常不甘心,于是,将竹片翻个底朝天,把一些值钱的物品拿了,随手将竹片扔了。

            村民们看到被打开的古墓和散落的竹片,便告知官府。来了几个官员,看到竹片大小一样,上面有字,字迹整齐,数量巨大。于是把竹片拾掇到一起,装了几车运走。谁知这几车竹片,揭开了中国历史上惊世骇俗、惊天动地一件大事。这就是《汲冢书》《竹书纪年》。

            这批竹简由汲县运到京师洛阳,晋武帝命中书监荀勗、中书令和峤负责整理。竹简长度为古尺二尺四寸,以墨书写(或作漆书,亦即墨书),每简40字。对竹简文字当时说法不同,一说为“小篆”,一说为“科斗文字”,一说为“古文”,应是一种较为规范的战国文字。整理工作首先是排比竹简的次第,其次是用当时的文字写出释文,最后是撰著提要。通过对竹简的研究,人们发现,原来盗墓贼挖开的墓是战国时代魏王冢,带字的竹片竟是前所未知的典籍,因它是汲郡人不准在盗墓冢时发现,故这批竹简被称为汲冢书?!吨袷榧湍辍肥恰都弛J椤分屑壑底畲蟮氖妨?。

            西晋一流的学者们整理了汲冢书,其中居然就发现了魏国的史书,这部再现于世的珍贵史书被称为《竹书纪年》。起名《竹书纪年》当然也有它自己的道理。原来古时无纸,著书立说,破竹刮平为简。字写在竹简上。多简编为一书,所以叫竹书。纪年是将史事按年编次,成为史书一种体裁。此所谓“竹书纪年”就是表明它是一部史书。

            虽然大家一致确认,汲冢书是由于盗墓被发现,但是关于汲冢书出土时间史学界一直有争议。一种说法是咸宁五年(279),这一说法以《晋书·武帝纪》为代表,《汗简·略叙》、张怀《书断》也持此说。

            另一种说法是太康元年(280),最早有这一说法的是当时的大学者杜预的《春秋经传集解后序》,孔颖达疏引王隐《晋书》也赞同这种观点?!侗碧檬槌肪?01引王隐《晋书》、今本《晋书·卫恒传》《晋书·律历志》以及《隋书·经籍志》也都是这种观点。

            还有一种说法是太康二年(281),主持整理汲冢书的荀勖在为另一本汲冢出的书《穆天子传》写的《序》中发表过这种看法,《晋书·束皙传》《太平御览》也都对这种观点表示支持。另外,太康十年汲令范阳卢无忌立石的《齐大公吕望碑》也是这样说的。

            太康初年说则较为可信。情况很可能是太康元年不准盗掘了汲冢,而汲冢书上缴官府则在太康二年。

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            遗址

            在河南省新乡市汲县县城(现卫辉市)西南10公里,孙杏村乡娘娘庙(村)南,另一说法在辉县市西南赞城镇大梁冢村(大梁冢即魏安釐王墓)。因墓地在汲得名(汲县古称汲郡)。为战国时墓冢。共七处(自东到西按天、地、五行编号)。西晋太康两年(公元281年),汲郡人不准盗发魏襄王墓(或言安釐王冢)3号“金”字墓,得竹书数十车,经束晳整编出《竹书纪年》一书,是中国最早(学术界一直有争论)的一部编年体史书,曾为中国文化史四大发现之一。为县级文物?;さノ?。

            至于汲冢墓主是谁?同样存在不同说法。晋代汲郡,如今的河南汲县西南,战国时是魏的封地。根据《晋书·武帝纪》、《律历志》、荀勖《穆天子传序》、卫恒《四体书势》,魏襄王是墓主。而王隐《晋书束皙传》则认为墓主当是魏安厘王。直到现在,这个问题依然还没有明确的结论

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