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          世界上持续时间最长的一场战争,造就两个大国
          趣历史 2019-02-11 13:31:41

            百年战争(英语:Hundred Years' War;法语:Guerre de Cent Ans)1337年至1453年,交战双方是英格兰王国和法兰西王国;后来勃艮第公国等国亦加入战争。它是世界最长的战争之一,长达116年,最后由法方胜出,不少新的战术和武器因而发明。

            岛国英格兰王国曾经也拥有过大陆领地

            中世纪前期,法国长期遭受北欧维京海盗打劫侵略。西法兰克王国加洛林王朝的查理三世以协助抵御其他海盗为条件,于公元911年,同意维京人领袖罗洛及其族人定居在英吉利海峡沿岸一块肥沃的土地上,并封洛罗为公爵。由于维京人又称为诺曼人,这块土地称为诺曼底(意思为诺曼人的封土)。维京人在此建立了诺曼底公国,停止海盗行为,并改奉天主教及接受法国文化,但诺曼底公国自此割据一方。

          image.png

            征服者威廉登陆英格兰

            1066年,诺曼底公爵征服者威廉渡海征服英格兰。其后150年内,说法语的诺曼底公爵同时为英格兰王,统治英格兰和诺曼底??墒桥德坠词欠ü醯母绞艄?,导致了原来平等的两个国王,变得完全不平等。后来,控制着阿基坦公国的法国王后阿基坦的埃莉诺与法国国王路易七世离婚,并且嫁给了作为诺曼底公爵和安茹伯爵的亨利。

            1154年,亨利加冕成为英格兰国王。又因为联姻,英格兰王国获得了阿基坦的领土,同时控制了英格兰以及法国近半的地区。

            13世纪初,当时的英王约翰失政,法王乘机夺回诺曼底及安茹两地,约翰返回英格兰。

            1215年,约翰王在英格兰贵族逼迫之下订立大宪章,才保住英格兰王位。此后百多年,法国贵族出身的英王,念念不忘要向法王取回祖宗的失地,而英王亦仍然控有法国西南沿岸一隅的阿基坦(Aquitaine),也成为锐意一统全国的法国王室的眼中钉。

            14世纪时,法国想赶走仍然盘据西南地区的英格兰,统一法国。后者非但不肯,还想夺回其祖先的土地,如诺曼底、曼恩、安茹等。两国另因法兰德斯的贸易纠纷,加深彼此的冲突。该地位于法国北疆,表面隶属法国,实则独自行政,且与英格兰有很多羊毛贸易。

            法兰西王位规定不可由女性继承,女性的继承权在几位法兰西国王路易十世(死于1316年),腓力五世(死于1322年),查理四世(死于1328年)逝世后曾多次提出,但每一次最终都由男性继承。

            当只有一独女的查理四世于1328年去世,和他血缘最近的男性亲属英王爱德华三世。爱德华的血统继承自其母伊莎贝拉,查理四世的姐姐;但由于其性别,伊莎贝拉是否具有王位继承权同样是个问题。此外,法国贵族对接受一位英国国王的统治也犹豫不决。因此法国的贵族和教士们在巴黎集会,明确男性不能因母亲的继承权而继承王位。如此一来,最近的男性继承人就成了查理四世的堂兄瓦卢瓦伯爵腓力,并确定他应该加冕,成为腓力六世。

            1340年,教皇确定在萨利克法下男性不能通过母亲的血统继承王位。

            再这样的奇葩混乱发展过程中,滋生出了长期战争的基础。

            相爱向杀,足足打了116年

            第一阶段(1337年-1360年之间),英法争夺佛兰德斯和阿基坦。1340年,英军在斯鲁伊斯海战打败法军,夺得制海权,防止法军渡海入侵。1346年8月,英军先于陆上的克雷西会战大胜,再围攻法国海防要塞加莱港,11个月后成功占领。接着又于本土的内维尔十字之战打败苏格兰入侵,擒获亲法的苏格兰王大卫二世,大大减少其威胁。

          image.png

            斯鲁伊斯海战

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            内维尔十字之战

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            普瓦捷战役

            1348年,黑死病横扫整个欧洲,两国停战十年。1356年,英格兰再度进攻,夺取法国西南部的基恩和加斯科涅。随即在普瓦捷战役以相同战术再次获胜。法国王室则承受英军横征暴敛、国家经济崩溃、平民起义反抗等内外煎熬,情势非常不利。1360年于布勒丁尼,法国被迫签订极不平等的布勒丁尼和约,割让出卢瓦尔河以南至比利牛斯山脉的全部领土。

            第二阶段(1360年-1400年之间),法王查理五世展开报仇,欲夺回被侵占的领土。他重组军队,以雇佣步兵取代大部分的骑兵、建立野战炮兵、重建海军。他改革内政,提升王权,整顿税制并将国库投入军备上。时机成熟后,他任命贝特朗·杜·盖克兰统领军队,以突袭和游击战术攻击英军,在多场战役大败英军。1380年,英军已退守沿海区域。英王担心丢失全部领地,乃与法国签署停战协定,仅保留波尔多、巴约讷、布雷斯特、瑟堡、加莱五个海港,和波尔多与巴约讷间的部分地区。

            第三阶段(1415年-1429年之间),法国勃艮地、阿曼雅克两派发生内战,农民市民也起义反抗,英格兰借机重战端。1415年,英军于阿金库尔战役打败法军,再与勃艮地公爵结盟,攻占法国北部大多数地区。法王查理六世无力抵抗,于1420年5月21日在特鲁瓦签订几乎亡国的特鲁瓦和约。英王亨利五世成为法国摄政王,有权承继查理六世死后的法国王位。法国已沦为英法联合王国的一部分。

          image.png

            阿金库尔战役

            然而,英法的亨利五世和查理六世却于1422年同年逝世。两方新王亨利六世和查理七世为争夺法国王位,再度交火。百年战争进入第四阶段。

            第四阶段(1429年-1453年之)间,法国人民不堪英军压迫,各方纷纷反抗,游击队经常捉拿英格兰的征税者,牵制英军部队,对法军有很大帮助。1428年10月,英军和勃艮地派包围了奥尔良,法军严重不利。此时法国出现一位传颂后世的救星圣女贞德,指挥法军于1429年5月击败英格兰,奥尔良解围,扭转了整个战局。

          image.png

            圣女贞德

            年仅19岁的圣女贞德不久被英军捉住,1431年被以女巫罪处死。这激起法国民族义愤,助使法军作出大反攻。1437年,法军光复首都巴黎。1441年,收复香槟地区。1450年,解放曼恩和诺曼底。1453年,夺回吉耶讷。

          image.png

            加莱围城战

            1453年10月19日,波尔多的英军投降,法国收复加莱除外的全部领土。

            1337-1453年,这场战争足足持续了116年之久。但这还没算完,其实直到1558年,法军攻陷加莱,英格兰才失去在欧洲大陆最后一个城市。

            两国崛起

            百年战争对英格兰和法国的人民都是大灾难,期间又逢黑死病爆发,两国受到战争和疫病双重打击,普遍经济重创,民不聊生。

            法国身为战事进行之地,国土满目疮痍,人民流离失所。但战争胜利使法国完成民族统一,更为日后在欧洲大陆扩张打下基础。英格兰丧失所有的法国领地,但也使英格兰的民族主义兴起。之后英格兰对欧洲大陆推行“大陆均势”政策,转往海外发展,成为全球最大的帝国。

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