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          布尔战争是什么?布尔人和英国之间发生了什么

            布尔战争是什么?下面趣历史小编为大家详细介绍一下相关内容。

            非洲是一片古老的大陆,在撒哈拉沙漠以南的辽阔土地上,生活着众多黑人族群和部落。然而进入近代以来,南非逐渐形成了一个白人新兴民族,被称作为布尔人。

            布尔人的出现最早可以追溯到15世纪晚期,那时正是地理大发现初期、大航海探险的活跃期。此后伴随着荷兰的东印度公司在开普敦周围的殖民统治和法国宗教战争的影响,众多荷兰和法国胡格诺派新教徒迁往南非并逐渐形成农场经济,逐渐融合成为一个新的族群。

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            “布尔”意指农民、农场主的意思,代表了这个新民族的社会结构特征和职业分布。然而好景不长,法国大革命的爆发之后,荷兰本土于1795年被法国占领,而英国也乘机出动舰队击败开普敦周边的荷兰民兵武装,占领了这片荷兰殖民地。

            拿破仑当政期间,英国曾短暂交还此地给荷兰。但当拿破仑失败之后,又一次占据开普敦殖民地并开始限制布尔人的农场经济。1834年,英国人颁布条例废除奴隶制,对以奴隶农场经济为主业的布尔人造成极大冲击。为了躲避英国人的政策高压,布尔人离开开普敦殖民地,深入南非内陆迁徙,并于1840年击败祖鲁人,建立了纳塔利亚共和国。

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            此时的大英帝国如日中天,正处于日不落时代的巅峰,制定了通过南方南非和北部埃及两个方向,将英国在非洲殖民地南北打通的殖民政策。于是尾随布尔人的脚步,英国人又一次灭亡了布尔人的政权,迫使布尔人再次迁徙,并于1849年建立了南非共和国。

            布尔人的南非共和国与英国保持了相互承认的对等关系,但由于对非洲南部土著祖鲁人的欺压,布尔人的南非共和国面临长期严峻的武装冲突,财政出现严重危急。农场经济的局限性和优良土地被英国侵占的现实,使得布尔人在20多年后无奈的接受了英国人的要求,并入了英国殖民地。

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            虽然双方达成了协议最终合并在一起,但布尔人和英国人不论是经济模式、文化习俗还是政治形态等方面均存在巨大差异,所以布尔人的离心力依旧十分强烈。1880年12月,布尔人市民群体和英国驻军发生冲突,布尔人的民兵组织随即伏击了英国援军,第一次布尔战争爆发。

            当时的大英帝国势力遍布全球,而布尔人只是一个刚刚形成的少数人口族群。但布龙克霍斯特干河战役中,英军的247人中有77人阵亡、157人受伤,布尔民兵却仅有2人死亡、4人受伤,一时间布尔人士气大振。

          image.png

            次年1月,英军进一步派遣增援部队前往德兰士瓦,总数千余人。然而在纳塔尔与德兰士瓦边境的朗峡受到了受到布尔民兵方面茹贝尔将军的阻击。此战中英军有93人被打死、133人受伤、54人被俘,带队的英军司令科利将军被击毙。而布尔民兵方面仅有1人阵亡、5人受伤。

            迫不得已,英国和布尔人签署了停战协议,后又补签《比勒陀利亚协定》。在此协定中规定了布尔人控制的德兰士瓦具有自治地位,但英国同时控制德兰士瓦的对外关系和战时借道的权益。第一次布尔战争之后,虽然有一个大体妥当的结局,但大英帝国却已沦为欧洲列强嘲讽的标靶,尤其被以强军崛起的德国所轻视。

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            当时布尔人主要控制德兰士瓦和奥兰治两个地区。其中奥兰治河地区于1867年第一次布尔战争之前就已经发现了钻石,而1884年,德兰士瓦又发现了当时世界上规模最大的威特沃特斯兰德金矿??蟛试春退笆绽蟮脑龀?,促使布尔人的经济突飞猛进,同时也加剧了与英国之间的摩擦。英国人在对财富的觊觎和对战败的不甘下,又一次于1899年发动了第二次布尔战争。

            在第二次布尔战争中,英国人不论是兵力人数还是武器装备都占据优势。但在战争的前期,英军对布尔军队的战损比例依旧处于一边倒的情况。英军损失惨重,但布尔人却似乎并未损失多少人马,如此惨败让世界大跌眼界,也动摇了大英帝国的政治地位。

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            为了彻底拿下南非,英国在本土紧急征兵,部署在南非打击布尔人的部队一度高达40多万人,并且开始采取各种残酷手段并执行了三光政策,在南非建立数不清的集中营来关押布尔人的平民妇孺和儿童。

            最终由于寡不敌众,整个德兰士瓦和奥兰治均被英国吞并。然而此战对大英帝国造成了沉重的打击。经济层面,英军在南非消耗了大约2亿2千万英镑的军费,国库积蓄被挥霍一空;政治层面,西方世界发起了同情和声援布尔人的运动,在荷兰和比利时甚至组建了众多民间团体向布尔人券赠战时流动医院和医疗设备。同时有来自荷、比、德、法、美、俄、爱尔兰、意大利以及斯堪的纳维亚国家的上千名人,作为志愿兵远渡重洋与布尔人并肩作战。这造成大英帝国的国家形象在西方一落千丈。

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            布尔战争不仅重塑了大英帝国、重塑了整个国际地缘政治,同时也是世界外交史、政治史和军事史的重大转折点。在战争中,布尔人广泛运用现代游击战术,并因此促使英军不得不将先前一直身着的鲜艳红色军服改为隐匿色军服。面对英军的大兵压境而不得不执行的全民皆兵政策在后来被二战中的德国、瑞士和战后以色列等国广泛借鉴,并树立了总体战和全民皆兵的思想。英军为了对付布尔人全民皆兵的情况而执行残酷的重压政策,所出炉的焦土政策、集中营和三光政策,后来被纳粹德国和日本法西斯所借鉴。同时也正是在布尔战争中,诞生了诸如野战电话、探照灯等诸多战争工具。

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            二战之后,布尔人再次主导了南非的政治格局,并于1961年退出了英联邦。然而虽然大英帝国殖民者存在诸多暴行,布尔人同样劣迹般般。由于对农奴庄园经济的依赖和奴隶制文化的影响,布尔人具有强烈的种族主义倾向,并从1948年开始就正式实行种族隔离制度,直至1994年南非举行多种族大选后,布尔人的政权才宣告结束。

            时至今日,布尔人这一称呼因为存在强烈的种族主义关联,已经很少被使用了。留存在南非的布尔人,如今的正式称呼已经演变为依据其语言命名的阿非利卡人。至于英国,在经历了战后民族独立风暴之后,早已不复当年的气魄了。

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