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          唐朝时期的“泼水节”!唐朝人为什么在冬天玩泼水?

            唐朝时期的“泼水节”!唐朝人为什么在冬天玩泼水?趣历史小编带来详细的文章供大家参考。

            其实,古代人的生活,并没有我们现在想象中那么无聊,相反,古人真的是比现代人还要会玩,比如唐朝时期的“泼水节”,竟然是泼寒胡戏,是在大冬天的时候举办的类似于泼水节的游戏。我们知道,泼水当然是天气很热的时候,玩起来会比较舒服,但是为什么唐朝人竟然在冬天举办泼寒胡戏?

          image.png

            唐朝前期,有一种起源于西域的疯狂游戏渐渐流行开来,那就是泼寒胡戏。

            泼寒胡戏最初是古代西域的一种乐舞。每年寒冬腊月,戏者头载面具,赤身裸体,击鼓歌唱,互相追逐泼水,为乞寒之戏,据说可以消灾祛病。

            泼寒胡戏的另一个名称是“苏莫遮”。苏莫遮是西域妇人戴的一种帽子,羊皮制成,外面涂油。

            《文献通考》中对泼寒胡戏讲得最为详尽,还列举出戏乐时所使用的各种乐器:……本西国外蕃唐国之乐,其乐器有大鼓、小鼓、琵琶、五弦、箜篌、笛。其乐大抵以十一月裸露形体,浇灌衢路,鼓舞跳跃而索寒也。

            泼寒胡戏传入中原的时间很久,最早为宫廷之戏,到初唐时在民间广泛流行,参与者不仅自娱,并且以之悦人。

            到武周末年,这种表演性很强的娱乐再一次被宫廷重视起来。武则天之后的中宗、睿宗两位皇上都喜欢看这种极有异域风采的狂欢活动,每到有泼寒胡戏表演的时候,皇子们微服出行,都跑到长安街头去观看。

          image.png

            史书上对此也多有记载,如《新唐书》载:神龙元年十一月,唐中宗“幸洛城南门,观泼寒胡戏”;景云二年十二月丁未,睿宗“作泼寒胡戏?!?/p>

            原本是自娱自乐的群体活动,类似于今日狂欢节上的表演。经过几十年的演化,尤其因为有了圣上的喜爱,泼寒胡戏也渐渐变了味道,越来越像大型的团体操表演。

            泼寒胡戏的日渐风行,各地纷纷组建自己的乞寒队伍,互相攀比,看哪一队的服饰更华美气派。如此即失去了原有的那种驳杂活泼的趣味,又花费奢靡,引来众多的非议,一些大臣开始发出反对的声音。

            史载,唐中宗在东都洛阳南楼上观看泼寒胡戏,殿中侍御史吕元泰上疏劝谏,认为游戏的人们穿胡服、骑骏马,击鼓张旗,有战争之象,很不适合在都城里表演。而且参加者竞相夸耀自己的服饰,助长奢靡之风,浪费国家财富。

            吕元泰认为,时寒则顺之,“何必裸露形体,浇灌衢路,鼓舞跳跃,而索寒焉?”这种风俗有百害而无一利,请求皇上禁绝这种野蛮之戏。

            但唐中宗并未采纳这份谏议,照看不误。

          image.png

            到了唐玄宗时代,宠臣张说也上疏批评泼寒胡戏,认为这种外来之戏没有典故,有悖先礼,“……裸体跳足,盛德何观?挥水投泥,失容斯甚?!痹俅吻肭蠼煤?。

            这一次唐玄宗采纳了张说的建议,开元元年冬天,敕令“腊月乞寒,外蕃所出,渐浸成俗因循已久。自今已后,无问蕃汉即宜禁断?!?/p>

            那样一个生机勃勃的戏乐从此消失,想来实在可惜。如果泼寒胡戏能够一直传承下来,今天的隆冬腊月我们也会有一个热闹而刺激的好去处了。

            唐代,在西域乐舞大量传入内地的同时,一种叫“泼寒胡戏”,又叫“泼胡气寒”的西域风俗性歌舞游乐活动也传了进来。这是源出于大秦国(东罗马帝国)的习俗,后经丝绸之路传到西域,又传到内地。这种活动类似于至今仍流行于傣族地区的泼水节。不过“泼寒胡戏”是在十一月的寒冬季节进行。届时,旗帜飘扬,鼓声震天,人们穿着胡服骑着骏马,有的戴着兽面,有的裸露着身体,相互泼水嬉戏,奔驰追逐,喧噪喊叫,尽情欢乐,成群结队跳着《浑脱》舞蹈,唱起《苏莫遮》歌曲,真像是军队一样的阵势,简直如战争一般的火爆,说是这样能够压火去病。从唐武则天当政末年兴起,到中宗时,已大为盛行,一时间上上下下都热衷于此。唐玄宗即位之后,对这种比较粗放的外来风俗不大赏识,加之朝臣极力进谏,在开元元年(公元713年)十月中旬,玄宗颁了“禁断”此俗的诏书。这种在中原地区渐成蔓延之势的群众性泼水及歌舞游乐活动,就逐渐绝迹了。

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