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          揭秘:明末崇祯皇帝真的藏了很多“私房钱”吗?

            今天趣历史小编给大家带来崇祯的故事,感兴趣的读者可以跟着小编一起看一看。

            崇祯十六年十二月。

            这时候的北京城已然寒风凛凛,路有冻死骨已经不是新鲜事,连续的兵祸加瘟疫,已经让这个城市的精神先于躯体而泯灭,一切都在等待着结束。

            这时候一个名叫赵士锦的年轻人奉命担任工部营缮司的员外郎。他上任以后,首先接管的是皇朝的国库之一——节慎库。这个国库的储存如何呢?

            “…新库中止二千三百余金。老库中……只千余金…外只有锦衣卫解来加纳校尉银六百两,宝元局易钱银三百两,贮书办处,为守城之用?!?/p>

            加在一起,一共四千二百多两。

            守卫的老军告诉赵士锦说:“万历年时,老库满,另置新库。新库复满,库厅及两廊俱贮足,今不及四千金”。

            这一段画面极为贴切地反应了明朝末期的财政现实,被详细地记录在了赵士锦的回忆录《甲申纪事》里,而这段画面也因此被人所熟知。

            很显然,国家已经极端贫困。在财政严重匮乏的情况下,且不说与满清、农民军作战,就是维护国家的正常运转都成了个问题。因此在这个时候,崇祯皇帝选择向诸位大臣“劝捐”——希望大家捐款救国。

            可大臣们的反应相当消极、乃至滑稽:

            除了太监王永祚、王德华、曹化淳各捐五万两以外,朝中官员大多发挥铁公鸡精神,比如内阁次辅魏藻德捐款五百两(这还不如不捐)。更有趣的是国丈周奎,死死不肯捐款,女儿周皇后拿出五千两让他做表率,他却从中克扣了两千、拿出剩下的三千两捐出。

            皇帝岳丈、文臣领袖如此表率,其他大臣可想而知?所以北京城的高官们,一改日常行为规律,出门不再乘轿子,穿衣服也要破破烂烂,更有趣的是在自家大门写上“此屋出售”四个大字,以示自己“毁家纾难”。与其说是做给崇祯帝看的,倒不如说是大家心照不宣的自娱自乐。

            崇祯不会相信他们没钱——就像他们不相信崇祯没钱一样。历史的践行者李自成已经为我们证实,这些大臣确实非常有钱。

            但似乎从崇祯时代开始、直到现在,崇祯皇帝“内帑私藏甚多”的声音也从未销迹,甚至成为主流。

            这个说法从何而起?

          image.png

            最初的版本,大抵在李自成离开北京时流传开的。

            在张岱先生的《石匮书后集》中有这么一处记载:“贼大驱骡马与骆驼载金银往陕西,旧有镇库金银积年不用者三千七百万锭,金一千万锭,皆五百两为一锭?!薄睹骷颈甭浴分幸布负跸嗤骸熬捎姓蚩饨?,积年不用者,三千七百万锭,锭皆五百两,镌有永乐字,每驮二锭,不用包裹?!?/p>

            简单计算一下,单单白银一项大约是185万万两。这是个什么概念?清初康熙中期,整个清政府财政收入约为四千万两白银一年——要收四百六十多年才够这一笔,总之这个数字我是不信的。

            另一个盛传的版本,认为白银为三千七百万两,倒显得更贴合实际。

            持有这种说法的,有杨士聪。他的《甲申核真略》中说“内有镇库锭,五百两为一锭,铸有永乐年字,每驮二锭,无物包裹,黄白溢目……括各库银共三千七百万两,金若干万?!?/p>

            白银的大量流入是在嘉靖初年才开始,而白银缴税则在万历初张居正改革以后,此前尤其是洪永年间,缴税大多为实物税、市面流通多为铸钱。而正式迁都北京是在永乐十八年,也就是说永乐时代,北京作为首都只有四五年的时间,这个时间段要收取足够的白银来铸作这些五百两的大型银锭,很是困难。

          image.png

            还是赵士锦的《甲申纪事》,里面提到:“闯破城后,日以内库银骡车运至西安。见其锭上有凿万历八年字者,闻内库银用至万历七年止,八年以后俱未用也?!?/p>

            这就有点不现实了。真正推行大规模白银征税的、正是张居正的一条鞭法施行以后,此后才有源源不断的白银被输送进来。而万历八年,一条鞭法施行才七八年,在此以前收取的白银,竟然连战乱、饥荒、瘟疫并发的明末都用不完,不合乎常理。

            比如具备超常聚敛能力的万历皇帝,在开矿的加持下:万历二十五年入18140两、二十六年入149239两、二十七年入533164两,年均二十五万多两,这是相当高的收入。而明朝从抚顺之战到广宁之战四年间的军费即高达三千万两,其中多由内帑出;而光宗一登基就用内帑赏赐九边二百万两;并且内帑包括京师武官以及宫殿修缮的费用。要说内库“(万历)八年以后俱未用也”,着实不可信。

            张岱先生以及他的好友许重熙等都是明末著名的文学家、史学家,自然不可能对历史有粉饰或扭曲。他们是那个时代的经历者、却非那场事变的亲历者,因此记录在案的,更多的是当时来自北方的传闻,而传闻是不牢靠的——比如李自成的部队离开时,当然不愿意说金银是拷打京城官员得来的、而更愿意说是劫掠自皇帝内帑。

            支持这一观点的,是明末文学家毛奇龄,他在《后鉴录》中记载道:“…拷索银七千万两,侯家什三,阉人什四,官什二,估商什一,余宫中内帑金银器具以及鼎耳门环钿丝装嵌,剔剥殆遍,不及十万,贼声言得自内帑,恶拷索名也?!彼闳衔?,闯军之所以说是得之“内帑”,是害怕被人知道他们严刑拷打京官的事迹。

            谈迁在《国榷》中也记录:“所掠输共七千万,大约勋戚、宦寺十之三,百官、商贾十之二。先帝减膳撤悬,布衣蔬食,铜锡器具尽归军输,城破之日,内帑无数万金,贼淫掠既富,扬言皆得之大内,识者恨之?!彼踩衔?,闯军所获得的,大多都是勋戚宦官以及百官与商贾,只不过托名“得之大内”。

          image.png

            如果说万历皇帝二十多年“开矿”敛财给人印象过于深刻、以至于民间同样认为崇祯很富有,那么身在京城、近在君侧的大臣们也“坚信”崇祯皇帝的富有、恐怕就是一种博弈的手段了。所以当众臣敦促皇帝以内帑填补军费,崇祯说:“今日内帑难告先生”时,他们依旧认定崇祯很富有;崇祯夫妇典卖宫中器具、修补破损衣服也被认定是吝啬所致。

            崇祯十七年初,李自成兵入山西,宣府、大同陷落之际,崇祯君臣想起了辽东劲旅吴三桂部。在二月二十号,崇祯皇帝召见吴襄(吴三桂父)与他商议吴三桂支援的事情,吴襄说要调集这些部队入关,需军饷百万,崇祯回答:“内库只存七万,搜集一切金银杂物补凑,也不过二三十万”,吴襄便像商人般否定了这桩“生意”。

            明眼人一看便知:吴三桂部不来,北京必定陷落,除非迁都南京、否则君臣必然被俘或被杀。但这时,陈演、魏藻德还有吴襄等人依旧反对调吴三桂支援、也依旧反对南迁,似乎在期盼着京师陷落、明朝灭亡。事实证明,他们就是如此期待的,等李自成一到,便长跪以求任用。

            所以他们“认定”明皇有的是钱、坚称自己家无余财,不过是个借口逃避为这个王朝出力罢了。

            或许明亡之前的某天,陈演碰到魏藻德,对他说道:“皇帝家累财矩万,不必我等捐饷”,魏藻德听罢,仰面哈哈大笑。

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