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          嘉靖年间的倭寇之乱为什么会那么严重?

            今天趣历史小编为大家带来了一篇关于嘉靖的文章,欢迎阅读哦~

            历史上,明朝还未建立,倭患就一直是中国东南沿海最为严重的问题。直到明朝中期,伴随着倭寇与东南地区海盗相勾结,使得这一情况变得愈加严重。甚至于,在嘉靖三十四年七十多名倭寇竟然从江浙登陆径直杀到了南京城下,由于明朝实行的是两京制,所以南京也是首都,这可是轰动了整个大明朝野,令人不可思议,但也暴露了这个时期的明军军备松弛,战力低下的真实状况,也从侧面让我们了解了倭寇的真实实力。

          image.png

            但为什么明军战力会变得这么低下?倭寇的实力真的有那么可怕吗?

            卫所制度崩溃

            原来,明朝开国之初在朱元璋的主持下建立了世袭军户制度的卫所制,这个制度其实就是军屯制度的一种升级版。凭借着稳定的土地收入为国家提供源源不断的优质兵员,在建国初期为大明提供了强大军力保证。

          image.png

            但是随着明朝官僚阶级的腐化,卫所军官开始不断克扣军饷,驱使军户为自己耕种土地,日益严重的剥削造成了卫所军人大量流亡,卫所军官又借此吃空饷,造成卫所制度到了明朝中期几乎已经名存实亡。

            党争夺权

            造成这次倭寇能够深入内陆直达南京袭扰的另一个原因则在于,此时的总督江南的严嵩党人赵文华甫一到任,就开始消除异己,冤杀浙江总督张经,并将浙直总督周疏、浙江巡抚李天宠等人削职为民,造成江南一地军政体系处于混乱之中。

            而这批倭寇其实一开始是在嘉靖三十四年六月在浙江绍兴府上虞县登陆的百多人部队,原先他们已经被知府刘锡、千户徐子懿包围在高埠地区,但正是由于当时的党争造成了包围圈出现疏漏,给了这群倭寇突围的机会。

            倭寇战力强悍

            这批倭寇并非一般意义上袭扰东南的倭寇,从这次他们深入明朝内陆过程中所展现出的战术素养和战斗能力来看,可以分析得出他们应该是专业的日本正统武士集团,并非平常明军所接触的日本海盗武士。

          image.png

            而正统武士和海盗武士,这两者是有着天壤之别的,海盗武士在日本几乎可以算是农夫,而正统武士则是从小就被依照战争标准训练成长起来的战争机器,仅在他们进攻南京未果之后,仅仅用了一个晚上的时间就快速奔袭一百八十里,途径溧阳、宜兴、武进、无锡就可以知道他们实力匪浅。明军早已军备废弛的卫所兵或者临时招募的乡兵义勇碰上他们,没有数量上的优势就没有获胜的可能。

            结语

            正是因为以上原因,使这股倭寇能够轻松的在大明江南地区肆意游走,但他们在引起明朝的真正注意之后,等待他们的也必然是灭亡的下场,正视这股倭寇的明朝认真起来也是很厉害的,在明朝严令不得放走一个倭寇的命令之下,原本畏首畏尾的明朝军政系统,开始发动起来,当倭寇逃窜到浒墅关后被苏松巡抚曹邦辅率兵包围,再没有给他们突围的机会。

            可以说,这次的倭寇袭扰如此严重不仅仅有着倭寇战力强悍的原因,更深层次的原因在于明朝军政体系的混乱以及卫所制度的名存实亡所带来的影响。南直隶地区的在册明军可能有十二万,但实际上刨去吃空饷以及散布各地的情况,就注定了一开始在未得到足够重视的情况下,对付倭寇的军力是远远不具优势的,为此大多明军会选择固守观望而不是轻易驰援了,毕竟他们首先要保证的是自己的守境之责,这才使得这几十个倭寇能够打到南京城下。

          免责声明:以上内容源自网络,版权归原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原创版权请告知,我们将尽快删除相关内容。

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