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          “金川之战”的成败究竟如何?为何乾隆为此震怒?

            “金川之战”的成败究竟如何?为何乾隆为此震怒?感兴趣的读者可以跟着小编一起看一看。

            乾隆十年,乾隆皇帝自上位以来,第一次决定用兵,而对手仅是川藏地区弹丸之地——瞻对。但是令乾隆皇帝始料不及的是,一场小战役竟最终演变为大战争,不但结果令人大跌眼镜而迫不得已草草收场,而且盛怒之下的乾隆皇帝更是挥起屠刀,正法多位达官显贵。

            这场战争就是第一次“大小金川之战”。

            那么战场战争之始末究竟如何?其得失成败又如何?

          image.png

            上图_ 清朝时期四川地图

            事情还是从文章伊始的“弹丸之地”瞻对地区说起,这一地区地处川藏通往之要道,而且山川险要,地形复杂,正所谓“蜀道难,难于上青天”。这一地区长期居住都是藏民,由于文明程度较低,且民风彪悍,所以这一地区经常出现土司头目之间局部战争。除了内部战争频发,这一地区人民还“兼职”山匪,对川藏过路之人进行抢掠,甚至官军亦不放过,气焰之嚣张可见一斑。

            然而,对于川藏地区向来主张“以夷制夷”之政策的清政府来说,当下的情况并不需要对这一地区用兵,至少也是不急于用兵。但是,川陕总督庆复和四川巡抚纪山,对瞻对地区风土人情缺乏了解,做出了轻敌的错误判断。而错误情报更令乾隆皇帝做出了“谈笑间,强?;曳裳堂稹钡拇砦笈卸?。尽管乾隆皇帝在出兵之前,特地嘱咐庆复与纪山用兵必须谨慎,然而,过度自信的庆复早已将皇帝之叮嘱,抛之九霄云外。

          image.png

            上图_ 庆复(?—1749年),佟佳氏,字瑞园,满州镶黄旗人

            结果,到了实际战场才恍然大悟,瞻对此地丛山峻岭易守难攻,清军遇到前所未有之困难,主要有二:

            1. 清军没有山地作战之经验,战斗力大大削弱;

            2. 崇山峻岭,粮草补给运输困难,缺少后勤保障。

            无奈之下,庆复再次请兵增至两万兵力,仗打了八个月,耗费国帑百余万,结果亦是毫无胜算。怯懦之下的庆复竟然谎报军情,与敌首班滚竟然达成私下协定,以自导自演一场大火,声称班滚已经烧死而冒功领赏。乾隆皇帝虽对庆复之战报有所怀疑,但是没有证据,加之乾隆皇帝本人也想尽早罢兵,也就姑且相信了庆复。

            虽然,战役是告一段落,但是清军的“无能”令川藏地区土司头目等人极为藐视,这也就为后来的金川之战埋下了伏笔。

          image.png

            上图_ 大小金川之役

          image.png

            上图_ 大小金川之役

            金川之地乃是一分为二,即“大小金川”,大小金川地理位置与瞻对比邻,因为流经这两地的河流中有金矿,因而得名“金川”,“大小”仅两地区分,并无强弱从属之分。因为与瞻对比邻,所以这两地居民都是藏民,而瞻对战役清军平庸之表现,金川之地的土司头目也都一清二楚。其中,大金川土司莎罗奔(非人名,乃管家喇嘛之称号)比较强势且不安定。他先以侄女阿扣嫁给小金川土司泽旺,以美人计控制泽旺,而泽旺本人又懦弱无能,阿扣再使连环计,勾引泽旺之弟良尔吉,最终莎罗奔通过一些列计策基本控制了小金川之地,实力大增。

            本来藏民之地土司之间火并之事常发,大清中央政府并非事事过问。然而,这次大小金川内部矛盾刚好发生在瞻对之役不久,乾隆皇帝敏锐察觉此事并非“内部斗争”这般简单,于是特地发长谕警告莎罗奔适可而止,放弃对小金川之地的控制,但并没有真正要动武之意图。不料,莎罗奔此时正值嚣张跋扈之际,在加之之前清军之无能表现,莎罗奔压根儿没理会天朝上国之警告,依然我行我素,甚至是变本加厉。

          image.png

            上图_ 清朝版图

            在莎罗奔先后又侵吞其他川藏土司领土逼近内地大门之时,四川巡抚纪山坐不住了,他一面汇报乾隆皇帝和上司庆复,一面准备兵丁镇压莎罗奔。在得到允许后,纪山出兵八百与莎罗奔之兵展开小规模战役,没想到清兵被打得落花流水,大败而归。乾隆皇帝是一个很要面子的皇帝,这场小规模接战清军初尝败绩,让乾隆皇帝觉得天朝上国颜面扫地,愤怒之下的乾隆皇帝决定金川地区蛮横土司莎罗奔动用武力,第一次金川之战正式拉开序幕。

            乾隆皇帝为此调兵谴将,特地将只会吹牛而毫无济世之才的庆复调回中央,以云贵总督张广泗取而代之。张广泗乃雍正朝跟随鄂尔泰,在云贵地区取得改土归流的头号功臣。乾隆皇帝正是希望凭借张广泗改土归流之经验,一举拿下金川之战。

            平心而论,张广泗确实“有两把刷子”,一上任就改变了庆复和纪山二人毫无战略战术的作战方针。张广泗在积极备战之同时,还不忘想方设法瓦解金川内部之团结,正是因为张广泗方法相对更有效,一度收复小金川大部分地区,并且取得小金川头目良尔吉的暗中支持,当然了这良尔吉并未脱离莎罗奔,说白了良尔吉就是个双面间谍,相信张广泗对此不会毫无察觉,只是利弊取舍,暂且与良尔吉保持联系。只是让张广泗没想到的是,他与良尔吉这段相互利用的关系,最后竟成为自己的一大罪状,当然这是后话。

          image.png

            上图_ 张广泗(?—1748年)

            然而当战事进入大金川腹地之时,清军再次受到负隅顽抗。清军面对依险而建的碉楼无计可施,张广泗几次的排兵布阵,分路袭击都毫无战果,甚至大败而归。面对这样的窘境,乾隆皇帝不肯就此罢兵,他特地派遣自己最为倚重的得力干将,首辅军机大臣讷亲前往四川督战??晌侍馐勤姿湮藿胖?,但他本人并未亲历战争,根本不懂军事。而讷亲本人更是对这次苦差极为苦恼,但无奈圣命难违只能硬着头皮硬上了。

            说来讷亲也是倒霉,在他来到四川没几天就赶上清军攻碉失败,这笔败绩日后也成了讷亲一大罪状。战事不利让讷亲与张广泗意见出现分歧,进而发展为矛盾,前线毫无进展,后方将帅不和,此时金川之战之窘境可想而知。

            最后,讷、张二人的“不作为”激怒了乾隆皇帝,一道谕旨,将讷亲和张广泗解职,张广泗羁押回京,乾隆皇帝亲自审讯,张广泗拒不认贻误战机之罪,也算是硬骨头,但最后还是被乾隆皇帝处斩。至于讷亲连回京辩白的机会都没有,在半路就被乾隆皇帝下令自裁,而更为残忍的是,讷亲自裁所用之物,正是其父祖留下的宝刀“遏必隆刀”,可怜讷亲半生辉煌却在金川之战栽了跟头。至于毫无寸功且谎报军情的庆复更是难逃一死,亦被乾隆皇帝勒令自尽。乾隆皇帝因为第一次金川之战,“一口气”处死了三位大员,其中讷亲和庆复更是一等公爵。

          image.png

            上图_ 讷亲( ..-1749) 清朝大臣,姓钮祜禄

            接替讷亲的是乾隆皇帝的亲小舅子傅恒,傅恒乃乾隆皇帝结发之妻孝贤皇后富察氏之亲弟,此时孝贤皇后刚刚去世,乾隆皇帝因为思妻之痛,对富察一家额外优渥。傅恒为人谦谨,兢兢业业,这是他的优点,但是能力着实平平。傅恒临危受命以日行二百里之速度来到四川,态度上就比讷亲积极百倍。

            入川之后,制定了一个绕过碉楼的书面战术(根本没有可行性)汇报上去。就在大伙等着看傅恒如何“绕行”之时,大金川土司莎罗奔也被战争拖累到扛不住了,因此主动降低姿态而求和。乾隆皇帝早有罢兵之意,苦于没有能下得了来台的“台阶”,这下子莎罗奔终于将这望眼欲穿的“台阶”送上门来,乾隆皇帝赶紧借此良机鸣金收兵,第一次金川之战就此告一段落。傅恒也因此成为了头号功臣,富察氏成为了乾隆朝最为显赫之外戚家族。

          image.png

            上图_ 乾隆皇帝(1736-1796在位)

            作为一名历史局外人来回看历史,我认为事情还要功过分开看。第一次金川之战结束了之后,乾隆皇帝积极对这场战争做了总结,并且诚恳地总结了自己与朝廷的错误。

            更主要的是乾隆皇帝,通过这场战争发现了朝政之腐败与军事之颓废,乾隆皇帝积极调整,迅速收起之前相对宽容的执政之风,同时建立精锐营以提高清军作战能力,更是积极研究攻碉战术,这些都为之后的“平定西北战争”和“第二次金川之战”打下了夯实之基础,这些都是乾隆皇帝作为一位政治家所做出的值得肯定之举措??蠢葱鄄糯舐源永炊疾皇怯肷憷春鸵货矶?,历练与磨难乃是必不可少之过程!

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