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          安史之乱之后国家转型!安史之乱对历史带来最大的影响是什么?

            安史之乱之后国家转型!安史之乱对历史带来最大的影响是什么?趣历史小编给大家提供详细的相关内容。

            安史之乱是中国历史上的一大转折点,战乱导致的一系列后遗症,深刻影响了中国历史的发展和中华民族的气质。为何表面上小小的一场战乱却有如此大的余震,随烂柯人君一起了解一下吧!

          image.png

            (《妖猫传》 剧照)

            一、安史之乱与盛世落幕

            唐玄宗时期,大唐建国一百多年的积蓄喷涌而出,描绘出一幅壮观的盛世画卷。玄宗开元天宝年间,自天子到庶人,无不因“我唐”的气派而自豪。在这繁华盛世中,一切都可以得到包容。皇帝是统摄天下的“天可汗”,各族人民一律平等,都是大唐的子民。大唐文化因吸纳进各种外来文化而变得多姿多彩,具有世界性。

          image.png

            (《妖猫传》 剧照)

            面对如此盛世,年老的玄宗渐渐失去了年轻时的政治锐气与奋发精神。大唐百年发展隐藏的隐患没有得到很好的解决,而是不断茁壮成长,发展到足以吞噬唐帝国的程度。玄宗晚年的任人唯亲无疑是一支催化剂,大大加速了矛盾爆发的进程。随着安史之乱的爆发,大唐在短时间内由巅峰跌落到谷底。

            安史之乱平定后,仍有一系列的后遗症困扰着大唐,让大唐君臣都无法安心度日?;叵肫鹭我话愕脑帜?,面对无法收拾的烂摊子,许多士人都在反思是什么导致了安史之乱,以及积极的寻找对策,做出了许多改变。而这许多改变,无疑影响了中国历史的走势。

            二、“天可汗”到“华夷分野”

            安史之乱后,唐人出于自觉为此次大乱找原因。由于叛军的首领安禄山史思明都是胡人,且其军中将领和士兵多契丹、突厥、奚人,所以矛头直接指向胡人。在战乱中,唐王朝为迅速平定战乱,曾多次向回纥借兵,回纥也慷慨的向大唐施以援手。但回纥每次在取得胜利后,都要对当地进行抢夺淫掠作为回报。在回纥帮助唐军收复长安与洛阳以后,这两地居民都遭受了数日野蛮的如强盗一般的掠夺。此外,安史叛军是唐代的东北边防军,东北作乱,唐帝国急忙调用西部边防军平叛,造成了西部边防力量的空虚。西部的吐蕃、南诏趁机入寇,带来了持续不断的兵灾。

          image.png

            (《长安十二时辰》胡人剧照)

            安史之乱带来的许多连锁反应,人们最直观的感受就是连年不断的战争,而这背后都有胡人的影子。这些战争无疑加剧了唐朝士人对于胡人的仇恨。唐代建国初,经历了魏晋南北朝三百年的民族大融合。隋唐王朝由于政治统一和国力强盛也大大加强了统御周边各族的能力,汉族与各民族整体上维持着一个和谐的局面。且李唐皇室含有鲜卑族的血脉,唐王朝开创了华夷一统的恢宏局面?!疤炜珊埂碧铺诙潦肥?,提到“自古帝王虽平定中夏,不能服戎狄”。然后自豪的说道“自古皆贵中华,贱夷狄,朕独爱之如一,故其种落皆依朕如父母?!?/p>

            这种华夷一体的局面在安史之乱后被打破,士人心中夷夏之防的概念又树立起来,对少数民族的成见日益加深。大诗人白居易《法曲-美列圣,正华声也》一诗中有云:“法曲法曲合夷歌,夷声邪乱华声和。以乱干和天宝末,明年胡尘犯宫阙……愿求牙旷正华音,不令夷夏相交侵?!笔械摹胺ㄇ笔且恢趾?,他认为是这种胡曲坏了中华的正乐,正是因为唐朝人沉醉于胡风,导致了胡人的入侵。这在当时无疑是一种普遍的社会观念??傻背趸ㄝ嗦ピ谘葑嗍芎缬跋斓哪奚延鹨虑?,君臣绝对无人会想到胡人会背叛和伤害大唐。

          image.png

            (《妖猫传》 白居易)

            三、“出将入相”到文武分途

            安史之乱带来的最严重后果无疑是藩镇割据与武人专权。唐王朝为了迅速平定叛乱,无奈地进一步赋予平叛节度使权力,使这些节度使手中掌握着完全听命于将领的武装。此外,唐庭大量的诱降安史叛军,这些叛军归降后仍保持原来的编制。藩镇问题最严重的地区为叛军的老窝河北,典型为河朔三镇。魏博、卢龙、成德三镇自乱后,名义上听命于大唐皇帝,实际上成为独立的诸侯。三镇的节度使完全世袭或由军人推选,只需在新的继承人产生后向唐庭汇报;三镇的赋税收入完全截留本地,由本地将领支配;三镇实际成为一个全民皆兵的军事化社会,三镇都保持着强大的常备军,对抗唐的削弱或互相征伐。

          image.png

            (安史之乱与藩镇割据形势图)

            跋扈的武将使士人对于武人的成见越来越深,当时在玄宗时已萌芽的文武分途思想变成现实。唐以前,某官员任职文官或武官并没有严格的限制,文可笔下定国策、武可上马平天下是无数士人的理想。以三国时期为例,司马懿、赵云、陆逊可以说都是众所周知的儒将,吴国武将吕蒙读兵书后令人刮目相看。到唐建国时,这一现象达到了极点。

            隋唐王朝建立者及上层贵族均根源于西魏北周关陇集团,这本是出自于武川镇的军人集团。隋唐皇帝为武将之后,故有浓厚的尚武精神。唐初,李靖、李勣、候君集等均以军功拜相。故出将入相、文武不分成为一种常态。到玄宗时、张说、牛仙客、李适之等人均由地方节度使调任为相。到李林甫为相时,为避免军功将领争权,上书“文士为将,怯当矢石,不如用寒族蕃人。蕃人善战有勇,寒族即无党援?!闭獯ザ诵诘P某加氡呓唇岬牡S?,同意了这一提议。因此军权渐渐掌握于安禄山、哥舒翰等尚武轻文的少数民族或教育落后的寒族士人手中。随着承平日久,唐开国的贵族也完全文士化,不必再浴血疆场来谋求高官,渐渐轻视武职。武将集团整体文化水平较低。

          image.png

            (《长安十二时辰》剧照)

            安史乱后出现藩镇割据,武将专权的现象。现实与文化偏见使士人极端仇恨武人,而且十分鄙视武职。士人均以文职为荣,以武职为耻。唐后期,朝臣们屡次向武则天开创的武举发动攻击,削减其规模。同时降低与文圣人文宣王孔子齐名的武圣人武成王吕尚的祭祀规格,体现对武人的歧视。大唐再造功臣郭子仪为人仁善,《唐语林》却记载因一判官讽刺他为“武人”而发怒仗杀此人,说明他十分介意别人说自己为武人。唐后期,中央官员一个叫张宗厚的官员到了河北,讽刺当地军将“今天下无事,今汝辈皖得两石力弓,不如识一丁字?!贝巳俗钪找脖痪孔髀宜?。

            唐末五代武人的势力达到了巅峰,梁、唐、晋、汉、周五代以及北宋皇帝都是凭借军权上台。但宋太祖杯酒释兵权之后,武人不仅在名誉上被贬到低谷,在实际权势上也处于真正的下风。整个社会形成崇文抑武的风气,纵使狄青、岳飞这样战功赫赫的将领,也始终被士大夫阶层小瞧。汉民族自此也渐渐失去尚武的传统。

            文史君说:

            近世以来,日本史学界提出著名的唐宋变革论,指出安史之乱是中国中古史和近世史的分界线。日本学者认为安史之乱后,中国由开放的唐型国家向内敛的宋型国家转变。的确,安史之乱是中国历史发展的分水岭。由于作乱者的身份标签是胡人,且战乱中又有其他少数民族或乘机要挟、或趁火打劫。大唐百年来营造出的包容胡风的传统被士大夫们质疑,夷夏之防重新被搬上了台面。中华文化渐渐变得内敛化,开始排斥周边少数民族,强调夷夏有别。乱后藩镇割据、武人专权的局面,文人士大夫处于弱势群体,只好在文化上对其歧视,渐渐使整个社会形成了重文轻武的风气?!俺鼋胂唷钡拇潮淮蚱?,政治完全由文人士大夫把持。汉民族自此也渐渐褪去了尚武的气质,变得文质彬彬。

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