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          为什么说“五胡乱华”曹操脱不了干系?曹操需要为此承担责任吗?

            为什么说“五胡乱华曹操脱不了干系?曹操需要为此承担责任吗?趣历史小编给大家提供详细的相关内容。

            五胡乱华可以说是中国历史上最黑暗,最为凄惨的时代。西晋八王之乱爆发,内斗不止,国力衰弱。匈奴、羯族、鲜卑、氐族、羌族等少数民族,趁机进入中原地区,整个北方地区受到了极大的摧残。有人认为,曹操和五胡乱华有脱不开的关系。因为曹操主政北方时,将大量的胡人内迁,其中就包括鲜卑、匈奴、氐、羌等,所以导致后来五胡乱华。我想如果曹操看见这种说法,肯定会从坟墓里爬出来大喊:“这个锅,我不背!”

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            曹操:这个锅,不背!

            三国时期曹魏控制整个北方地区,所以曹魏面对的异族是最多的,从东到西,分别有乌桓、匈奴、氐、羌等。曹魏对境内的乌桓、匈奴、氐、羌采取先征服,后迁徙分散各地居住,调其租赋,征其兵役的政策。对塞外鲜卑实行分化怀柔和招诱内附的政策,所以也有部分鲜卑内附。这样的政策无可厚非,中原连年混战,人口锐减,农业生产很受影响。招诱少数民族内附、迁徙,一方面可以增强国力,另一方面可以解决外患。消极的后果是迁徙于关中、并州的各族人口过多,关中几乎过半是氐、羌,为后来五胡乱华埋下了一定的隐患。

          image.png

            五胡乱华

            如果因为以上的理由说曹操需要为五胡乱华负责,那就太牵强了。因为曹操采取的这种政策,不论在三国时期,还是在三国之前的两汉时期,甚至后来的西晋,大家都是这么干的。三国时期,魏、蜀、吴三国各自有相邻的外族,当时那种情形大家都缺人,所以征召少数民族当兵,收他们的赋税很正常。只不过曹魏吸收、招诱的异族多一点罢了。西汉时,尤其是汉武帝之后,当时面对匈奴也开始采取吸收的政策,军中也有少量的异族军队开始出现。所以并不能说曹操是始作俑者,西汉已经开始这么干了。

          image.png

            西晋各少数民族分布情况

            东汉以来,西部和北部周边的各少数民族开始不断地向内地迁徙。造成这一状况的原因,主要是由于汉王朝的军事征服以及他们为弥补中原兵力和劳力不足而对各少数民族的招诱。与此同时,周边各少数民族势力的消长变化也引起一些民族迁徙。汉末以来,胡人不断移入中原,除汉政府鼓励外,尚有一客观因素,便是气候变迁及地理因素。原来在长城以外,由于天气干燥,一向只能畜牧;反之,长城以南则较宜农耕发展。然汉末魏晋时,北方出现了一次“小冰期”,气候变得寒冷。本宜于农耕的华北 地区,转为适合游牧生活;而游牧民族原居之处,却不宜居住,故胡人大量南下觅生计,这也是少数民族内迁的一个重要原因。

          image.png

            八王之乱

            胡人内迁只是导致五胡乱华其中的一个因素,而且曹操并非胡人内迁的始作俑者,所以这个锅,曹操不能背!五胡乱华最主要的原因有以下几个方面:一是中原王朝自身的衰败和动乱,从东汉末年,经历三国一直到西晋,其实中原王朝一直没有恢复元气;二是经过“八王之乱”连年战争,人口损失相当严重;三是中原地区周边各胡人部族的整体实力有了长足的进步。由于长期居住在中原地区后,他们可以从中原人民那里学到更多有关农业生产和手工业制作的先进技术,以及中原的先进文化;四是中原王朝向来看不起周边少数民族,产生骄傲自大的心态。

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