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          清史稿是怎么编纂成的?为什么说《清史稿》不是清朝正史?

            清史稿是怎么编纂成的?为什么说《清史稿》不是清朝正史?感兴趣的读者可以跟着小编一起看一看。

            历史上很多朝代很多时期都有正史史书,尽管不能说每件事情都是真实的,但是作为一种研究古代历史的权威手段,参考性还是非常强的。不过,史书其实一般来说都不是当时的人写的,而是后世的人写的,或者说在一个王朝灭亡之后,由下一个王朝所写,这样一来,很容易会被泼脏水,后世的人想让我们看到什么,就会写什么,而不会太在意真假。然而历史上那么多朝代,只有清朝的《清史稿》让人疑惑,这名字一听就不是正史该有的名字,为什么是一个“稿”,而不是清朝正史呢?

          image.png

            《清史稿》是中华民国初年由北洋政府设馆编修,记载了清朝历史的正史——“清史”的未定稿。全书五百三十六卷,其中本纪二十五卷,志一百四十二卷,表五十三卷,列传三百一十六卷,以纪传为中心。所记之事,上起1616年清太祖努尔哈赤在赫图阿拉建国称汗,下至1912年清朝灭亡,共二百九十六年的历史。

            《清史稿》自1914年设立清史馆起,编修工作历时十四年,先后参加编写的有柯劭忞等一百多人。至1927年,主编赵尔巽见全稿已初步成形,担心时局多变及自己时日无多,遂决定以《清史稿》之名将各卷刊印出版,以示其为未定本。赵尔巽在《发刊缀言》中指出,本书是“作为史稿披露”的“急救之章”,并非视为成书“。但因尚无依中国传统正史体例编写的清朝史书,加上《清史稿》本身史料丰富,其价值仍不可忽视。

            《清史稿》编写的体例大致取法《明史》,但又有所创新。如本纪部分不仅逐年记载了皇帝的军国大事,而且在前代逊君还健在、无谥可称时,创了“宣统纪”的新格局;各志、表中除记录天文、地理、礼乐、选举、艺文、食货及皇子、公主、外戚、封臣等各方面活动外,新修的交通志、邦交志及表中的军机大臣、理藩院,都是前史所未有的。列传中创立了畴人、藩部、属国三传,反映了清代社会的新发展。另外,对于反清斗争的重要人物如张煌言、郑成功、李定国、洪秀全等,《清史稿》也都列了传。这些都是值得称赞的。

            但是,由于参加修史的人多是清朝的遗臣,因此书中贯穿着反对民主革命,颂扬清朝正统的思想。例如诬蔑明末农民起义军为“土贼”,称太平军为“粤匪”,视辛亥革命为“倡乱”。而对帝国主义的侵华罪行和清朝统治者的反动行径却多处隐瞒,倾向性错误显而易见。对此,连当时的南京国民政府人员都极为不满。1929年12月14日,故宫博物院院长易培基列举了十九条理由,呈请政府下令禁止《清史稿》发行,其中有;反革命、蔑视先烈、称扬诸遗老、鼓励复辟、反对汉族、为清朝讳等内容。

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            同时,由于《清史稿》是众人编纂而成,编写时彼此缺少照应,更因时局动荡,仓促成书,未经主编总阅审定便“随修随刻,不复有整理之暇”,过于粗陋。因此,体例不一,繁简失当,史实之中也有不少错误。其实,这与赵尔巽的主导思想有关。因为他把此书看做是“急就之章”,“并非视为成书”,只是想以此作为“大辂椎轮之先导”,对于书中所有疏略纰缪处,“敬乞海内诸君子切实纠正,以匡不逮,用为后来修正之根据?!毕匀?,按其本意?!肚迨犯濉分皇抢嗨葡执囊徊空髑笠饧?。这样,易培基所指责的“体例不合,人名先后不一致,一人两传,目录与书不合,纪表传志互不相合,有日无月,人名错误,泥古不化,简陋,忽略”等谬误也就成了先天性的问题。至于遗漏、颠倒、文理不通等现象更属意料中事。

            《清史稿》一书为纪传体断代史,上至1616年努尔哈赤称汗,下到1911年辛亥革命爆发,部分内容涉及辛亥革命后的民国历史,像张勋复辟、溥仪离宫。

            该书的历史跨度达到300年,大部分的文本内容依据《清实录》《清会典》《国史列传》等档案资料写成,比较详细、系统地展示清朝历史面貌,是研究清朝历史不可多得的第一手材料。

            《清史稿》既然是重要史书,为什么就不叫《清史》呢?这跟成书背景有关,《清史稿》1927年仓促编成,当时国内形势是兵荒马乱,全书很多细节都没有敲定,就没有直接称之为《清史》,而以“稿”代称,表示不是“定本”。

            《清史稿》的出笼,源自我国对历史重视的传统,改朝换代之后,新的统治者向来有为上一代修纂历史的传统。中华民国成立之后,袁世凯就批准设立清史馆,请来赵尔巽、于式枚、刘廷琛等人,在北京东华门内整理清史。

          image.png

            袁世凯对修纂清史很用心,根据统计,参与《清史稿》工程的人员前后达到300多人,时间花费长达14年,最后成书536卷,约2400万字。主编赵尔巽,工作相当给力,他坦承“盖既非史学之专,复值时局之多故,任大责重?!?/p>

            可惜天有不测风云,1916年袁世凯因为称帝失败羞愧而死,失去他的财力支持,清史馆的开支立即紧张起来。甚至,赵尔巽要亲自跑去“讨钱”,求各位大帅拨点款。

            不得不说,《清史馆》能够最终成书,还要感谢下面3位军阀,没有他们的大笔资金支持,很可能该书要胎死腹中。这3个人分别是“东北王”张作霖、“狗肉将军”张宗昌、“秀才将军”吴佩孚。

            修纂期间,《清史馆》有着诙谐的插曲,尽管参与的人员大多是清王朝的遗老们,他们的立场也是清王朝的视角,经常为清王朝大唱赞歌,并对革命党人语含讽刺。

            但是,这些遗老是两边不讨好,一方面国民政府曾于1929年禁止《清史稿》公开印行,另一方面清朝末帝溥仪为首的前清贵戚没少骂他们,毕竟大清皇帝还没死,修什么史?

            总体上来看,刚刚成书的《清史稿》,由于出自众人之手,彼此间照应不够,又未经仔细校对,所以还存在年月、事实、人名等出错的硬伤。

            但是,《清史稿》的历史价值、学术价值,还是受到后世学者的肯定。现在《清史稿》已经被正式列入“二十五史”,它已经是一部解读清朝历史的权威之作。

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