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          大清为何要下剃发令?“剃发令”带来的是什么结果?

            大清为何要下剃发令?“剃发令”带来的是什么结果?趣历史小编给大家提供详细的相关内容。

            大清是什么时候下达“剃发令”的?其实早在他们刚进北京城的时候,多尔衮就下达了相关命令。

            各处城堡着遣人持檄招抚,檄文到日,剃发归顺者地方官各升一级,军民免其迁徙?!肚逄谑德肌贰ぞ砦?/p>

            但过了不到一个月,“剃发令”就被取消了。

            自兹以后,天下臣民,照旧束发,悉从其便?!肚逄谑德肌贰ぞ砦?/p>

            在大清攻下南京、苏州和杭州等江南重镇之后,多尔衮又重新推行“剃发令”,并喊出了极其血腥的口号“留头不留发,留发不留头”。

          image.png

            取消“剃发令”完全可以理解,因为时机不成熟,大清受到了一些反对。但在打下南京之后立刻旧事重提,难道真是多尔衮膨胀了吗?

            从当时的局面来看,大清统一应该只是时间问题,但毕竟天下未定。多尔衮为何贸贸然地推行“剃发令”呢?万一将来生出波折,岂不是没事找事?

            一直到康熙亲政之前,大清都在做最坏打算:要是关内待不了,咱们就回东北。

            从统治者的认识来看,我们完全看不出大清有多膨胀。再者,大清入关,也是打着“为崇祯皇帝报仇”的旗号,如果转头就把故明臣子的头发剃了,这叫什么事呢?

            再者,贸然颁布“剃发令”非常不理智。当时天下未定,大清还不是中原的合法执政者。凭借几十万军人,就想命令数千万人剃发?这难度实在是有点高。

            就算成功执行了“剃发令”,谁敢保证百姓不会在心里骂大清呢?从成本来看,投入与产出完全不成正比。

            大清想坐稳江山,办法有得是,何必用这么非主流的办法呢?

            在我看来,大清最初对于是否剃发持无所谓的态度?;谎灾?,他们更在意如何巩固统治,而不是逼人剃发惹人骂。

          image.png

            大清最初并不愿意逼迫别人剃发,但大清在对待降臣的时候,一定有一套不成文的规定:你只有剃了头发,才算是真心投降我。

            这个话他们没说过,但从基本事实来看,这种情况应该是普遍存在的。

            那些投降大清的实力派和重臣,比如范文程、洪程畴、孔有德、尚可喜、耿精忠和吴三桂等人,都是在“剃发令”下达之前,就主动选择了剃发。

            这就造成一个很尴尬的事实:大清统治者没打算逼别人剃发,但汉臣为了更好地融入大清,主动选择了剃发,这帮人该怎么办呢?

            汉人最大的优越感来自于文化,映衬到具体现实,就是汉人的发型和穿着。

            大家可以设想一个画面:大清夺取了天下,范文程等汉人高官顶着金钱鼠尾,走在一群顶着汉人发型的百姓中间,百姓会用什么眼光看待他们呢?

            吐口水都是轻的,那种看待背主奴仆的眼光,肯定会令这帮汉人高官感到无地自容。

            换位思考一下,如果你是范文程等汉人高官,在你已经剃发的前提下,你是否希望大清重新颁布“剃发令”呢?肯定是希望的,因为这样一来,就不是你一个人丢脸,而是全体汉人一起剃发了。

            这就是丑恶的人性:不能只有我一个人出丑,要丑大家一起丑!

            也有人说,难道他们就不能重新蓄发吗?何必要剃掉全体汉人的发,拖大家下水呢?

            这种可能性是不存在的,剃发容易蓄发难。一旦范文程等高官开始蓄发,大清统治者会怎么看?你们之前用剃发的方式效忠我大清,现在居然重新蓄发,难道是想“反清复明”?

          image.png

            当然了,这帮汉人高官是需要区分对待的。比如说范文程,从始至终都是大清的官,他最没有心理压力;洪承畴、孔有德、尚可喜、耿精忠和吴三桂可都是降将,他们的心理压力一定是很大的。

            不管是谁,都不愿意别人指着他的脊梁骨骂他汉奸,尽管这是事实。

            在这种背景下,不管大清统治者想不想颁布“剃发令”,他都必须颁布。否则,那些已经剃发的汉人高官岂不要被人嘲笑一辈子?这种耻辱与痛苦将伴随他们终身,他们还会忠于大清吗?

            他们会认为,这份耻辱是大清带给他们的,只要有机会,他们一定会想办法要求大清统治者颁布“剃发令”,如果他们的要求一再遭到拒绝,他们或许会铤而走险。

            在统治基础本就不牢固的前提下,如果大清再与汉人高官们内讧,他们这江山还能坐稳吗?我看悬。如果没有带路党,就凭大清本民族那点人够干什么的?扔进中原连个水花都溅不起来。

            出于种种考虑,多尔衮在江南重镇被攻陷之后,重新颁布了“剃发令”。这下子,汉人高官们开心了:要丢脸大家一起丢脸,到时候谁也别说谁!

            无耻吗?无耻。有用吗?还真有用。有受害者吗?当然有,未剃发的汉人,宁愿不留头也要留发的汉人,以及大清自身。

            是的,大清颁布“剃发令”,伤害的也是他们自己。到了上个世纪,大清之所以会以一种窝囊的方式,结束了自己二百七十六年的统治生涯,“剃发令”功不可没。中国之所以会在“三千年未有之巨变”中被打得满地找牙,“剃发令”要负主要责任。

          image.png

            统治有两种方式,一种是血脉交融,一种是高压管理。这两种方式各有利弊,结果也是截然不同。

            所谓血脉交融,就像五胡十六国时期,虽然北方都是异族当家,但他们的结果不是被灭就是融入主体民族。

            大家在读到这段历史的时候,如果抛开执政者的民族不谈,会发现五胡十六国时期,和春秋战国的区别不太大。

            所谓高压管理,就像大清这样,满汉严格区分,连通婚都不被允许,时刻给人一种“我们不是自己人”的感觉。

            到了雍正时期,大清已经入关一百余年,但雍正皇帝依然说出了“朕以外国之君,主中国之事”的话来。就是这样的疏离感,使得中国在面对剧变时,依然无法勠力同心,最终落得个凄惨收场,何苦来哉?

            大清应该怎样坐稳江山呢?其实并不难。依大清初期所表现出的凝聚力来看,这是一个生命力极其旺盛的政权。先帝努尔哈赤皇太极把各种异己力量收拾得服服帖帖,大清绝不会像大元那样突然夭折。

            只要大清真能把既得利益集团好好收拾一顿,让百姓能过得好一点,天下自然会慢慢稳定,完全用不着使用“剃发令”这种怪招、邪招。

            大明可是汉人政权,可是天下正统,但当崇祯皇帝管理不善的时候,李自成张献忠等人不照样造反吗?老百姓没饭吃的时候,管你是哪族人?统统砍死!

            本来可以好好地做一家人,非要弄出个“剃发令”来强调你我之间的不同,这种傲慢与偏见贯彻始终,大清未来的凄惨命运就此奠定。

            不过话说回来,多尔衮当时也没有办法,在剃发与否的问题上,实在是没什么可以调和的空间。

            如果留发的汉人占据上风,剃发的汉人就只能终身感受到深深的耻辱和难堪,一直到死;如果剃发的汉人占据上风,留发的汉人就会被强迫剃发,或者直接砍头。

            从表面上看,“剃发令”的颁布是由汉奸孙之獬提议,大清执政官多尔衮等少数人同意的提案??墒导噬?,“剃发令”的颁布,更多的是入关汉人、投诚汉人与关内汉人之间的博弈。

          image.png

            很多人说起明末那些事的时候,总是满腔怒火地讲民族矛盾如何如何??墒导噬?,在“剃发令”颁布之前,民族矛盾只能算是次要矛盾。

            如果汉人没有内讧,满人那点数量,那什么入主中原呢?

            强调民族矛盾的人,又该怎么解释李自成和张献忠的行为呢?当他们看到大清崛起之后,依然猛攻大明,直至大明最终倒塌。

            强调民族矛盾的人,又该怎么解释吴三桂和史可法的行为呢?吴三桂打开山海关引清军入关,史可法拍手叫好,还要嘉奖吴三桂。

            你说明末的主要矛盾是民族矛盾,崇祯一定会表示反对,因为杀他们老朱家人最多的是反贼李自成。

            你说明末的主要矛盾是民族矛盾,官僚集团一定会表示反对,因为他们咬牙切齿地痛恨老百姓,“不作安安饿殍,效尤奋臂螳螂”。

            所谓的民族矛盾,不过是用以遮掩阶级矛盾的幌子而已。不过当“剃发令”横空出世之后,直接为民族矛盾打了一针强心剂?;谎灾?,“剃发令”颁布之后,民族矛盾才逐渐压过阶级矛盾成为主要矛盾,并长期存在着。

            国家是统治阶级的工具,阶级矛盾是不可消除的??纱笄迤扔诤喝烁吖俚难沽?,突然玩了“剃发令”这么一个神操作,使得大清在阶级矛盾之外,又背负了民族矛盾的重压,这样的政权必然是矛盾重重,从开国贯彻始终,后世频繁的文字狱也验证了这一点。

          image.png

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