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          “登闻鼓”制度是怎么来的?朱元璋提倡“上访”为何“上访”的人却越来越少?

            “登闻鼓”制度是怎么来的?朱元璋提倡“上访”为何“上访”的人却越来越少?感兴趣的读者可以跟着小编一起看一看。

            其实,“上访”就是群众越过底层相关国家机关到上级机关反映问题,并寻求解决问题的一种途径,也是上层政府了解民意的一个重要途径,也是包括中国在内许多国家的表达形式。

            自古以来,“上访”就是一种“民意”的表达方式,最早出现在尧舜时代。据史料记载,在尧舜时期,各个交通要道上都会竖立一块木头,用来征集百姓的意见。百姓可任意在上面,书写自己心中的想法,或者是对当政者的看法。

          image.png

            这种做法一直延续到西周,后来,在此基础上,又添加了“路鼓”与“肺石”?!吨芾瘛肪陀小胺问恰?、“路鼓之制”,让有冤情的人可以去“击鼓鸣冤”,以便冤情上呈。当时的朝门之外,都会挂一块像人肺的石头,凡是有冤情需要申诉的,都可以到肺石下面进行申诉。

            随着时间的推移,这两个东西就逐渐演变成了“登闻鼓”制度。

            登闻鼓制度用的“登闻鼓”,在汉代时期就挂在了宫门口的公车署里,不管谁有冤情都可以击鼓鸣冤,消息就直接能被皇帝知晓。这种绕过各层政府机关直接上诉的做法,是中国古代“民告官”的重要方式,也就相当于现在的“越级上访”。

            到了宋代,随着直诉制度的不断完善,朝廷就专门设立了“登闻鼓院”和“登闻检院”,来处理“越级上访”事宜。他们负责接待上访的百姓,处理上访的事务,如有必要,案情则会直接呈给皇帝审阅。

          image.png

            除此之外,老百姓还可以通过“诣阙”和“拦舆”上诉冤情。

            例如:汉朝的齐太仓令淳于公犯了罪,朝廷将他拘禁了起来,他的小女儿缇萦知道后,就上书汉文帝,希望可以成为官府的奴婢,以此来减轻父亲的肉刑。因为感念缇萦的孝心,汉文帝就废除了肉刑。缇萦的这次的“越级上访”,可谓是功德无量,这就是历史上的“缇萦救父”。

            然而,“拦舆”就是指:拦截皇帝的马车来控诉自己的冤情。西汉初年,刘邦在征讨英布,返回长安的途中,关中就有许多的百姓挡道,拦住了他的马车。他们控诉:丞相萧何利用自己的职权,用低廉的价格强制买田、置办豪宅。刘邦在收下百姓的诉状之后,回到宫中就立刻下旨:让萧何亲自向百姓谢罪。

            这三种上访的方式都很好,但是,碍于时间和地域等因素,能够越级上访的百姓并不多。而皇帝在处理国家大事的同时,还要抽出时间来处理百姓的上访事件,这就导致皇帝力不从心。像清道光皇帝,面对繁多的上访案子,就打回地方,让地方官员去解决这些上访的事。其结果也是可想而知:地方官员只会敷衍行事,导致百姓上访更加的困难,也没有了实际的作用。

          image.png

            到了唐朝,皇帝就因上访事务繁多,颁布了相关的法律。在法律中就明确的规定:普通百姓要想上访,就要经过一系列的程序的重重判决,如若还不满意才可以上访到皇帝处。如果,不遵守这种限制越级上访的制度,也算是一种犯罪。

            到了明朝,这种情况就发生了变化,因为,明太祖朱元璋是农民出身,他深知百姓心中的苦楚,同时,也害怕手底下的官员为了自己的私欲会把朱家的天下搞垮,于是,他就积极鼓励百姓上访,还要求:各地官员要本着良心来做官,切忌贪腐残害忠臣贪赃枉法。

            甚至,朱元璋为了保证百姓能够顺利上访,防止当地官员拦截或惨遭迫害,他就编纂了《大诰》。在这本书中,详细记载了淳化镇巡检何添观等人,因刁难上京告状的农民,最终,被处以刖刑一事,这也算是给各地官员的一个警醒。

            当时的百姓如需上访,只要手持一本《大诰》,一路上访,就会畅通无阻,途中更是无人敢拦。

          image.png

            更值得一提的是,朱元璋不仅鼓励百姓上访,还准许 “越级绑缚”。也就是说,百姓在上访的同时,还可以把上访涉及到的贪官污吏直接捆绑,押解到京城治罪。这种情况,不论是在哪个时代都是一件不可思议的事情。并且,朱元璋还说:如果有拦截的人,全族都会被诛族。

            最终,在这样一番严打强压之下,各地的吏治自然清明,从这里,我们也可以看出朱元璋的决心。不过,朱元璋却天真地认为,在这项政策落实到实处之后,全国各地就不会有贪官污吏了。但没想到的是,百姓也会公报私仇。

            有一些地方百姓,假装响应皇帝的号令,把当地衙门的官员绑起来勒索钱财,如果不给,就威胁将其绑到京城让皇帝处理。更有甚者,当地官员为了不丢掉自己的乌纱帽,严防百姓,造成了恶吏肆意欺压良民的现象,最终,没有人再敢越级上访了。

            于是,在政策实行一段时间之后,反而很少有人越级上访了。

          image.png

            朱元璋实在想不通,越级上访既可以维护自身利益,还能够获得一定的赏赐,可是,百姓就是不愿意来。

            这主要是因为,朱元璋并没有考虑到百姓手中的实权。自古以来,民斗官就没有赢过,很多官吏特别是胥吏,他们在百姓心中就是“地头蛇”,连新上任的官员都不敢招惹,更何况是普通百姓了。在这种情况下,除了财力、人力雄厚的大家族,又有谁有能力上访呢?就算逞一时之快,上报了皇帝,也害怕回去之后,被秋后算账。

            除此之外,古代的交通很不发达,到达京城则需要跋山涉水,百姓上访的过程中,需要不少的费用,长路漫漫,在上访途中,还要承受着各级官员的刁难。因此,百姓上访得到的则比失去的更多,时间一长,大家都懒于上访了。

          image.png

            但到了明朝后期,每一朝皇帝都会出台严控上访的新政策。比如:嘉靖朝规定:告状者“于登闻鼓下及长安左右门等处自刎自缢,撒泼渲呼者,拿送法司,追究教唆主使之人,从重问拟?!笨杉?,当时自残告状的人并不少,明朝统治者也并不顾惜,这些规定都被清朝所继承。

            最后,虽然清王朝灭亡了,但是,中国延续了两千年的上访制度被保留了下来。

          免责声明:以上内容源自网络,版权归原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原创版权请告知,我们将尽快删除相关内容。

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