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          明朝为什么会海禁呢 真的是闭关锁国那么简单吗

            还不知道:明朝为什么会海禁呢的读者,下面趣历史小编就为大家带来详细介绍,接着往下看吧~

            公元一三六八年,即元顺帝至正二十八年,亦即明太祖洪武元年。

            据《明通鉴》称,“春,正月,壬申朔,四日,乙亥,太祖祭天地于南郊,即皇帝位。定有天下之号曰明,建元洪武。

            同是在这一年的闰七月,明军攻破元大都(即北京),顺帝孛儿只斤·妥懽帖睦尔北遁到蒙古高原,仍以大元为国号,史学界称之为北元。至此,大明在华夏的统治,在继大元之后,最终确立了下来。

            ——此为引子。

          image.png

            直到大明朝的时候,我国一直都处于世界的领先地位,当然,这种领先亦体现在其对外的开放性上。早在秦汉之际,当遥远的驼铃声响起,就有大批的商贾将我们的丝绸和瓷器,经由丝绸之路远销到了欧洲。

            唐宋以后,海上贸易逐渐兴起,朝廷亦开始设置“市舶司”,据《宋会要辑稿·职官四四》的记载,南宋高宗赵构就曾洋洋得意地说,“市舶之利最厚,若措置合宜,所得动以百万计,岂不胜取之于民?朕所以留意于此,庶几可以少宽民力耳”,可见当时的海上贸易所带来的利润,于国家财政的意义已经不容小觑了。

            然而在大明建国后的洪武四年,朱元璋开始颁布一系列的诏令,实行海禁政策,就不得不令人感到费解了。

            细按了来,其实是颇有深意的。

          image.png

            首先,便是出于军事上的需要;

            由上文的引子里,我们已然了解到,大明的建国,并没有完全铲除前朝(即大元)残余势力,退守蒙古高原的北元,军事实力仍不能小觑,并与大明在很长一段历史时期内都处于对峙状态,时刻威胁着大明王朝的统治,这在我们几千年的古代史里是独有的。

            如明英宗的“北狩”,就很能体现出这种对峙,所给予明廷的威胁。

            除此以外,张士诚、方国珍的残余势力也并未彻底铲除,而是流亡海上,他们时常与日本浪人勾结在一起,聚成一股颇具军事实力的倭寇,频繁侵扰内地,便是所熟知的东南沿海地区的倭患。

            据《明史》和《明实录》里的记载,从1368—1374年的七年间,规模较大的倭寇对大明沿海的侵扰,就有十二三次之多。

            正是出于以上两个方面的军事压力,为避免倭寇借着大明与北元对峙之机,趁火打劫,或者北元在大明御倭之际南下,“禁?!本推奈匾?。

          image.png

            其次,是出于政治上的需要;

            于此处,我们还得从上文的引言谈起:在大明王朝建立之初,与之对峙的,并非仅仅是北遁到蒙古高原的北元,似乎那些散落于南洋,曾经的大元的藩属国们也在盯着这个新生的大明政权呢。这种“国际环境”下,就更使得朱元璋时刻都觉着犹如芒刺在背了。

            所以,朱元璋就更加迫切需要希望,将那些原本向大元朝廷称臣进贡的众多的藩属国,争取过来,一方面可以壮大自己的声威,另一方面则实现孤立北元的政治目的。

            而朱元璋的军事力量却不怎么给力,即便是张士诚、方国珍的残余势力,和北元已经让他很头疼了,就唯有通过经济的手段了。

            据《文献通考》卷三十一 ·《市籴考》上讲,当时朝廷有明令,“今贡舶与市舶一事也,凡外夷贡者,皆设市舶司以领之,许带他物,官设牙行,与民贸易,谓之互市,是有贡舶即有互市, 非入贡即不许其互市矣”。

            也就是说,要想与大明进行贸易,首先要先向大明进贡,承认其宗主国的地位。

            所以,明朝前期的外交活动非常频繁。据史书上说,明廷先后三十余次,派出使臣到东亚、东南亚各国,举行册封典礼,招徕海外诸国来明朝贡。我们所熟知的郑和下西洋事件,便是在这种背景条件下发生的。

            可见明廷的“海禁”政策,是颇有些政治上的意义的。

          image.png

            最后,也是最为重要的,是为了巩固朝贡贸易,获得巨额的财政收入;

            在我们通常的认知里,“郑和下西洋”不过是为了宣扬国威,而绕世界去撒银子。

            倘若联想到,明成祖朱棣是在历时四年的靖难之役后,才登上皇位,而又在仅仅的两年后,即永乐三年便组建起一支庞大的船队来,开始下西洋的活动,我们就不得不为他的钱袋子忧心了。当然,其间另有因朱棣的得帝位不正,而不得不动了包括编撰 《永乐大典》、建造永乐大钟、迁都北京、北征蒙元残余势力等的一系列重大工程,这些开支亦是绝不亚于洪武重修长城的。

            所以,“朝贡贸易”的这一概念,于近年来就越来越受到更多的专家、学者的注意了。也就是说,郑和的下西洋,非但不是绕世界去撒银子,而是主动去进行海外贸易。在郑和经过的藩属国,在进行政治意义的赏赐的同时,也回采购来批的香料、珍宝,并招来进贡。

            当他们来华进贡,又都会有大批的商人随行,除贡品外,还带来大量的货物。当使者进贡毕,则在朝廷的控制之下,首先由官府选购了其大宗商品,如香料等,之后并准许其进行“互市”。而“互市” ,往往又要受到时间、地点的限制。如此一来,官府选购所占的比重也就越来越大了。

            由官府选购的大宗商品,其实与郑和下西洋采购来的香料、珍宝一样,除满足朝廷之用外,还开 “库市”,允许商人 “博买”,或“折俸”发放给官员。所谓的“库市”,是为官府清理仓库中的货物而开的,直接销售给普通市民;而商人 的“博买”,则是在朝廷高价售卖给商人后,再经由商人之手流入民间。

            由此看来,明朝的“海禁”似乎又另有更深层次的动因,即希望通过“海禁”来打击民间贸易,将与他国的海外贸易权收归政府手中,实行垄断,将高额的利润直接收归中央财政,进而缓解中央财政的窘境。

          image.png

            结语

            综上所述,明廷所实行的严厉的海禁,并非是我们通常所以为的“闭关锁国”那么简单,其中不乏有军事、政治的因素,亦不乏是一场朝廷与民间进行海外贸易的博弈,以至于当民间私人走私贸易兴起后,明廷又不得不于隆庆年间解除了海禁。

          免责声明:以上内容源自网络,版权归原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原创版权请告知,我们将尽快删除相关内容。

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