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          国本之争

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            国本之争,又称争国本。是明朝明神宗册立太子的问题,由于中国古代有“太子者,国之根本”之说,所以被称为国本之争。当时有两派分别拥护皇长子朱常洛与福王朱常洵(郑贵妃所生)争夺太子之位。朝廷大臣按照明朝册立长子为太子的原则,大多拥戴皇长子朱常洛,向明神宗建议立长子为太子,然而明神宗不喜欢宫女所生的朱常洛,却加倍宠爱郑贵妃,并且有意立郑贵妃的儿子朱常洵为太子,却受到大臣与慈圣皇太后极力反对。由于明神宗迟迟不立太子,令群臣忧心如焚。朝中上下也因此分成两个派别,明神宗与群臣争论达15年之久。直到1601年,朱常洛才被封为太子,而朱常洵被封为福王。但是福王迟迟不离京就任藩王。直到梃击案发生,舆论对郑贵妃不利后,福王才离京就藩,太子朱常洛的地位也因而稳固。

          国本之争

          国本之争——万历皇帝迟迟未立太子引发的事件

          相关人物

          万历皇帝? --? 朱常洛?--? 朱常洵

          国本之争简介:万历朝因以何人为太子争端不止

            国本之争,又称争国本。是明朝明神宗册立太子的问题,由于中国古代有“太子者,国之根本”之说,所以被称为国本之争。当时有两派分别拥护皇长子朱常洛与福王朱常洵(郑贵妃所生)争夺太子之位。

            朝廷大臣按照明朝册立长子为太子的原则,大多拥戴皇长子朱常洛,向明神宗建议立长子为太子,然而明神宗不喜欢宫女所生的朱常洛,却加倍宠爱郑贵妃,并且有意立郑贵妃的儿子朱常洵为太子,却受到大臣与慈圣皇太后极力反对。

          01300000358882124252978115867.jpg

            由于明神宗迟迟不立太子,令群臣忧心如焚。朝中上下也因此分成两个派别,明神宗与群臣争论达15年之久。直到1601年,朱常洛才被封为太子,而朱常洵被封为福王。但是福王迟迟不离京就任藩王。直到梃击案发生,舆论对郑贵妃不利后,福王才离京就藩,太子朱常洛的地位也因而稳固。

          免责声明:以上内容源自网络,版权归原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原创版权请告知,我们将尽快删除相关内容。

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          国本之争的背景:万历皇帝尤为喜爱郑贵妃

            明神宗的长子朱常洛原为他与宫女王氏在偶然之下所生的,明神宗因为朱常洛为宫女所生,所以不喜欢他。

            王氏原为慈宁宫宫女,在张居正主政的万历九年(1581年)的某一天,明神宗往慈宁宫向慈圣皇太后请安。当时太后不在,王氏端水让他洗手,他一时兴起,就宠幸了王氏,王氏受孕后,太后询问皇帝?;实燮鹣炔怀腥鲜撬淖魑?,太后命人取《内起居注》查看,至此皇帝方勉强承认,后封王氏为恭妃。当时宫中称宫女为“都人”,明神宗因此称朱常洛为都人子,不是很喜欢他。

          14460M095091F-1BL_meitu_56.jpg

            明神宗嫔妃众多,其中最宠爱郑氏,万历十年(1582年)封为淑妃,次年进为德妃。到万历十四年(1586年),郑氏生子,即朱常洵。明神宗大喜,有意进封为皇贵妃,这对恭妃冷落的态度有鲜明的对比。很快,有流言说明神宗与郑贵妃曾到大高玄殿祷神盟誓,相约立朱常洵为太子,并且将密誓御书封缄在玉匣内,由郑贵妃保管。

          免责声明:以上内容源自网络,版权归原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原创版权请告知,我们将尽快删除相关内容。

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          国本之争过程:朱常洛因朝臣拥护保住了太子

            朝臣拥护朱常洛

            明朝大臣受到流言影响,纷纷建议尽早册立皇长子朱常洛为太子,以破除流言。万历十四年(1586年)郑氏生子同年,首辅申时行上疏,列举明英宗两岁、明孝宗六岁被立皇太子为例,要求册立皇长子朱常洛为太子,明神宗以长子幼弱为由,等两三年后再举行。这加深群臣的不安,户科给事中姜应麟、吏部员外郎沈璟等人纷纷殊请册立东宫。其中姜应麟措词激烈,让明神宗激怒,将奏折扔在地上,对身边宦官说“册封贵妃,初非为东宫起见,科臣奈何讪朕!”遂降旨:“贵妃敬奉勤劳,特加殊封。立储自有长幼,姜应麟疑君卖直,可降极边杂职?!庇谑潜峤胛笸悴涫?。

            吏部员外郎沈璟、刑部主事孙如法相继上言,都被处罚。但自明神宗处罚姜应麟的谕旨也指出立太子一定会依长幼顺序册立。此后大臣仍然要求册立皇长子朱常洛为太子,并于万历十八年(1590年)集体要求册立,并且杜门请辞,向明神宗施加压力。明神宗只好推至明年、或皇子十五岁时,之后又推说延至万历二十年春举行。到次年八月工部张有德提议需要动工准备,然而被明神宗以不准奏扰为由罚禄三月。首辅申时行与大臣等人上疏反对,明神宗大怒,然而申时行又暗中表明辩白。此时曝光后申时行名誉扫地,被弹劾后只得辞职返家。众大臣或被辞职,或被廷杖。

          2015324172039.jpg

            三王并封之礼

            万历二十一年(1593年)年正月,明神宗加快了改立进程,下手诏给大学士王锡爵,要将皇长子朱常洛、皇三子朱常洵和皇五子朱常浩一并封王,以后再择其中善者为太子。王锡爵既怕得罪明神宗,又怕被朝臣攻讦,于是上疏请由皇后抚育长子,如此长子就是嫡子。然而神宗只以前谕示朝臣,继续准备行三王并封之礼,顿时朝中大哗。

            因为王锡爵这么一说,等于明指朱常洛还需要补办手续,质疑了朱常洛做太子的合法性,因此大臣们纷纷指责王锡爵阿谀顺上,王锡爵无奈自劾请辞,而神宗也迫于众议收回了前命。

          免责声明:以上内容源自网络,版权归原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原创版权请告知,我们将尽快删除相关内容。

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          国本之争的结局:朱常洛最终稳定了太子之位

            太子已经册立,国本之争算是结束了,可事实并不是这样的。在册立之后,朱常洛的待遇并没有因此得到改善,地位也没有因此而提升,处境依然很危险,万历三十一年的“妖书案”就是一个很好的证明?!把椤钡拇笠馐撬瞪褡诹⒅斐B逦皇瞧炔坏靡?,以后必定会改立常洵。

            类似的“妖书”早在万历二十六年就曾出现过,名《忧危竑议》,此书假托朱东吉之口揭露了郑氏的夺嫡之念,但由于神宗的压制,此案未起波澜?!把椤痹谔硬崃⒑笤俅纬鱿痔嵝淹⒊?,太子的位置依然不稳固。而且,“妖书”的出现也不是空穴来风,它与福王朱常洵之国的问题密切相关。为什么这么说呢?按照明代的定制,福王成年后就应该到他的封地去,谓之“之国”,但郑氏对于立储并没有彻底死心,还是把福王留在京师不让他就藩,而神宗也是三番两次地故意拖延,这实际上就释放出一个信号,那就是虽然太子已立,但随时都有可能被福王取代。于是廷臣争相奏请福王之国。对此,神宗先以福王府邸未成为借口;四十年冬,福王府邸落成,首辅叶向高奏请福王之国,神宗传谕说福王将于明春之国;到了第二年春天,并不见福王有之国的迹象,于是兵部尚书王象乾又奏催福王之国,对此,神宗说亲王之国的时间是在春天,现在已经快过了,明年再去吧。

          1f30e924b899a901bf6145c51d950a7b0308f5e9_meitu_59.jpg

            对于神宗的推延政策,大臣早就洞悉,不断上疏力争。不久,神宗又传旨说要想让福王之国,必须要为他准备四万顷庄田。对于这一苛刻条件,首辅叶向高表示不可能办到,但神宗仍坚持四万倾之说,并不退让,欲以此继续拖延时间。后又传谕内阁,欲以为太后祝寿为借口拖延之国日期,但此议为叶向高封还,他本人也以辞退力争。后来在李太后的帮助下,福王终于四十二年三月就藩。至此,前后延续了近三十年的国本之争才最终落下帷幕。

            国本之争中,神宗其实是倾向于立宠妃郑氏之子为太子的,这种意向较为明显。若非大臣前赴后继地疏请、力争,朱常洛最终能否当上太子,就很难说了。如果说明代的大臣都是唯唯诺诺地听命于皇权,他们为什么敢如此勇敢地劝谏甚至顶撞君主呢。如果说皇权是至高无上的,那么为朱常洵为何未能如愿以偿地被册封为太子呢?所以说明清时代远不是人们想象的那样,皇帝的意志统领一切,一切都是专制的?;实鄣男形绻环侠穹?、规则(比如国本之争中,皇帝一意想立朱常洛为太子的行为并不符合中国传统社会立储时“有嫡立嫡、无嫡立长”的原则),也会遭到官员们的反对,从而在压力下放弃自己的不合理行为。

            更进一步说,中国传统政治文化中是存在约束皇权的力量的,只不过这种约束并非来源于制度性的强硬规定,而是官员对于政治合法性的理性坚守,以劝谏、力争甚至请辞等各种方式表达出来。当然,我们不宜将这种约束看得过高,毕竟,这种约束并不能时时束缚住君权的越轨行为。

          免责声明:以上内容源自网络,版权归原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原创版权请告知,我们将尽快删除相关内容。

          ...查看更多
          结语

            在慈圣皇太后的干预下,明神宗终于在万历二十九年(1601年)让步,立虚龄已二十的皇长子朱常洛为太子,朱常洵为福王、朱常浩为瑞王、朱常润为惠王、朱常瀛为桂王。

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