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          九边重镇

          "

            九边,又称九镇,是中国明朝弘治年间在北部边境沿长城防线陆续设立的九个军事重镇,分别是辽东镇、蓟州镇、宣府镇、大同镇、太原镇(也称山西镇或三关镇)、延绥镇(也称榆林镇)、宁夏镇、固原镇(也称陕西镇)、甘肃镇。嘉靖年间明廷于北京西北增设了昌平镇和真保镇,万历年间又从蓟州镇分出山海镇,从固原镇分出临洮镇。公元1368年明朝建国,其后百余年间,退居漠北的蒙元残余势力伺机南下,成为明代的严重边患。明朝统治者不得不在东起鸭绿江,西抵嘉峪关,绵亘万里的北部边防线上相继设立了辽东、宣府、蓟州、大同、太原、延绥、宁夏、固原、甘肃九个边防重镇,史称“九边重镇”。 是明朝同蒙古残余势力防御作战的重要战线。武宗以后,边将冒饷,边兵逃亡,诸如此类的事已司空见惯,边备日渐废池。直至明朝灭亡。

          九边重镇

          九边重镇——明朝控制边陲的九个要地

          九边重镇简介:明朝用以掌控边陲的九大重镇

            九边,又称九镇,是中国明朝弘治年间在北部边境沿长城防线陆续设立的九个军事重镇,分别是辽东镇、蓟州镇、宣府镇、大同镇、太原镇(也称山西镇或三关镇)、延绥镇(也称榆林镇)、宁夏镇、固原镇(也称陕西镇)、甘肃镇。

            嘉靖年间明廷于北京西北增设了昌平镇和真保镇,万历年间又从蓟州镇分出山海镇,从固原镇分出临洮镇。

          4de9e751td859f70fa7a3&690_meitu_60.jpg

            公元1368年明朝建国,其后百余年间,退居漠北的蒙元残余势力伺机南下,成为明代的严重边患。明朝统治者不得不在东起鸭绿江,西抵嘉峪关,绵亘万里的北部边防线上相继设立了辽东、宣府、蓟州、大同、太原、延绥、宁夏、固原、甘肃九个边防重镇,史称“九边重镇”。 是明朝同蒙古残余势力防御作战的重要战线。

          免责声明:以上内容源自网络,版权归原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原创版权请告知,我们将尽快删除相关内容。

          ...查看更多
          解密:明朝的九边重镇具体是指的那九个地方?

            辽东镇

            总兵初驻广宁(今辽宁北镇市),隆庆后冬季驻东宁卫(今辽宁辽阳市)。管辖的长城东起丹东市宽甸县虎山南麓的鸭绿江畔,西至山海关北锥子山,全长970余公里。

            蓟州镇

            总兵初驻桃林口,后移迁安寺子峪(也称狮子峪),天顺年又移三屯营(今河北迁西县境内)。管辖的长城最初东起山海关,西至镇边城(原名灰岭口),自增设昌平镇后,西改至慕田峪(今北京怀柔区境)。管辖的长城东起山海关,西至慕田峪,全长880余公里。

            宣府镇

            总兵驻宣府卫(今河北张家口市宣化县)。管辖的长城东起慕田峪渤海所和四海治所分界处,西至西阳河(今河北怀安县境),全长510多公里。

            大同镇

            总兵驻大同府(今山西大同市)。管辖的长城东起镇口台(今山西天镇县东北),西至鸦角山(今内蒙古清水河县口子村东山),全长330多公里。

          ca8065380cd79123ffefa02faf345982b2b78059_meitu_62.jpg

            太原镇

            总兵初驻偏头关(今山西偏关县),后移驻宁武所(今山西宁武县)。管辖的长城西起河曲(今山西河曲县旧县城)的黄河岸边,经偏关、老营堡、宁武关、雁门关、平型关,东至太行山岭之真保镇长城,全长800多公里。因该镇在大同、宣府两镇长城的内侧(南边),故又称为内长城,而偏头、宁武、雁门三关也就合称为内长城的“外三关”,在东边的蓟州镇与真保镇的居庸、紫荆、倒马三关就为“内三关”。山西镇长城城墙多为沉重大石。

            延绥镇

            总兵初驻绥德州(今陕西绥德县),成化以后移治榆林卫(今陕西榆林市)。管辖长城东起黄甫川堡(今陕西府谷县黄甫乡),西至花马池(今宁夏盐池县),全长880多公里,在大边南侧另有“二边”,东起黄河西岸(今陕西府谷县墙头乡),曲折迂回,西至宁边营(今陕西省定边县)与大边墙相接。延绥镇长城遗迹多被积沙掩埋,局部地段被推平做了公路,尚有夯土墩台存在。

            宁夏镇

            总兵驻宁夏卫(今宁夏银川市)。管辖长城东起花马池,西至宁夏中卫喜鹊沟黄河北岸(今宁夏中卫市西南),全长约1000公里。宁夏镇长城遗迹大部分埋于流沙之中,仅贺兰山段石砌城垣有断续残存,并保存一段因断层地震活动而造成的错位现象。

            固原镇

            总兵驻固原州(今宁夏固原市)。管辖长城为东起延绥镇饶阳水堡西界,西达兰州、临洮,全长约500公里。明后期改线重建,西北抵红水堡西境与甘肃镇松山新边分界。固原镇长城遗迹除景泰县境的“松山新边”保存较完整外,其余地段城墙圮坍严重,仅保存夯土。

            甘肃镇

            总兵驻甘州卫(今甘肃张掖市)。管辖长城东南起自今兰州黄河北岸,西北至嘉峪关讨赖河一带,全长约800公里。甘肃镇长城遗迹,虽经风沙剥蚀堆埋,仍大段保持连贯的墙体,在山丹境内还保存着一段两条间距10余米的平行墙体。

            昌平镇

            总兵驻昌平(今北京昌平区)。管辖的长城是从原蓟州镇防区划出的渤海所、黄花镇、居庸关、白羊口、长峪城、横岭口、镇边城诸城堡长城线,其东北起于慕田峪关东界,西至紫荆关,全长230公里。

            真保镇

            总兵驻保定,管辖的长城北起紫荆关,经倒马关、龙泉关、娘子关、南至故关,全长390公里。

          免责声明:以上内容源自网络,版权归原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原创版权请告知,我们将尽快删除相关内容。

          ...查看更多
          解密:明朝九边重镇发生过哪些著名的战斗?

            明太祖北伐成功将元军赶出了长城以北地区,并未赶尽杀绝。元朝的残存势力虽然经?;ハ嗖猩?,有时强盛有时衰弱,但一直侵扰明朝的边境,企图卷土重来。因此,明朝自建国起,其国防就一直以北方边镇最为重要,而有明一代,北方的边患也从未停止过,直到亡于李自成。

            洪武年初,朱元璋即在北方设辽东〔今辽宁辽阳〕、大同、宣府〔今河北宣化〕、延绥四镇,不久又设宁夏、甘肃〔在张掖〕、蓟州〔今天津市蓟县〕三镇,其镇守为武职大臣,提督则为文职大臣。又以山西镇巡统驭偏头三关,陕西镇巡统驭固原,也称为太原、固原二镇,这九镇统称“九边”。九边东起鸭绿江,西到嘉峪关,绵延万里。

            朱元璋又在长城以北建立大宁卫〔今凌源〕、开平卫〔今内蒙古多伦〕、东胜卫〔今内蒙古呼和浩特〕三个军事重镇,作为九边的外围据点。于要害之地,如紫荆关、芦花领、古北口、居庸关、喜峰口、松亭关等处,也都置兵戍守。于是东起辽阳,西经大宁、开平、兴和、独石、东胜,抵大同,数千里间,各边镇卫所都驻军队、开屯田,声势相连,形成了一条牢固的防务线。

          011A9AF5470B00EDFF8080811A9AD7BD_meitu_64.jpg

            其中,山海关乃关内外交通枢纽,地势最为重要,女真兴起后,以此地驻兵最多,设总兵和经略负责镇守。驻守边镇的军队称为边兵,总兵官总镇正兵,副总兵领三千人作为奇兵,游击 也领三千人往来防御

            ,为游兵,恭将分守各路要塞,东西互相策应,为援兵。永乐年间,成祖自动放弃大宁卫,把大宁所辖边地赏给兀良哈,从此北边失一重镇,辽东与宣府、大同的联络也因此阻绝。成祖又徙东胜左卫于永平,右卫于遵化,宣宗更因开平卫孤远难守,徙于独石,三卫尽失,边防的形势大为削弱。以前是边防第二线的宣府、大同也逐渐变为最前线的要塞了,北方的国防线因此步步南移。不过成祖对边防还是相当重视的,自宣府以西,直至山西边缘,“皆峻垣深壕,烽堠相接”,凡通车马的隘口,设百户防守,只有樵夫牧民的隘口,也安置边兵十人戍守。英宗正统元年,因为宁夏所辖的屯堡均在河外,旷远难守,由总兵史昭建议,在花马池筑哨马营,以便策应。宪宗成化七年,延绥巡抚余子俊大筑边城,东起黄甫川,西至定边营,共一千二百余里。而在墙内,自偏头至宁固,堑山堙谷,称之为夹道。这些边城,非常坚固,守卫的将士也英勇顽强,北人称之为骆驼城,一时之间,西北防务颇为振饬。

          免责声明:以上内容源自网络,版权归原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原创版权请告知,我们将尽快删除相关内容。

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          九边重镇的衰落:明朝的九边重镇如何被弃用?

            由于边防的驰坏,也是从成祖时逐渐开始的。洪武时,平时只让出生本地的士兵和有罪谪戍者守边,边境有事才调动内地的军队,称为客军。成祖却命内地的军队都要轮流戍边,称为边班,从此边兵逃亡的人数逐渐多起来。

            而边军的屯田制度,从宣德、正统时起也开始遭到破坏,分驻各边镇的亲王、太监、军官等都争相侵占屯田,役使军丁为他们耕种,军丁不堪虐待,逃亡的就更多了。

          ac345982b2b7d0a2d0c3a51dcbef76094b369a2c_meitu_66.jpg

            当时的正派官吏,象山西、河南巡抚于谦,宣大巡抚罗亨信深知问题严重,对宦官及其私党的所为极其不满,为维护屯田制度不废余力,象于谦就曾“尽夺镇将私垦田为官屯,以资边用”,而罗亨信也迫使明廷停止征收军丁私垦田的田税。边军屯田还不能做到粮食自给,朱元璋便下令盐商只能拿边境的粮食来换盐引,于是富商大贾纷纷出钱召募农民到边境开荒垦田,边境的粮仓也因此充足了。

            但是到了孝宗弘治年间,户部尚书叶淇却让盐商纳银换引,而由太仓供给边境用粮,盐商们自然不再管边境的粮仓是否装得满,边地日见荒芜,边境的粮价越来越贵,边军用粮也越来越困难了。武宗以后,边将冒饷,边兵逃亡,诸如此类的事已司空见惯,边备日渐废池。直至明朝灭亡。

          免责声明:以上内容源自网络,版权归原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原创版权请告知,我们将尽快删除相关内容。

          ...查看更多
          结语

          其中,山海关乃关内外交通枢纽,地势最为重要,女真兴起后,以此地驻兵最多,设总兵和经略负责镇守。驻守边镇的军队称为边兵,总兵官总镇正兵,副总兵领三千人作为奇兵,游击 也领三千人往来防御,为游兵,恭将分守各路要塞,东西互相策应,为援兵。

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