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          明朝灭亡的原因与马有关:为何缺乏优良战马?
          趣历史 2014-03-19 10:42:31

            明朝灭亡与马有关!在传统社会,马是一种很好的交通工具,甚至是必不可少的交通工具,驾车、远行、狩猎,等等,样样离不开马,所以传统社会非常注重养马、用马和驯马,政府更是对马这种动物重视有加,逐步形成了一种对马的训练、采购等的管理制度,因为战马在传统战争中是不可缺少的。

            西游记里的孙悟空大闹天宫之后,被封了个弼马温的职务,其实是一个养马和管理马匹的职务,说明古代社会是非常重视马这种动物的,连天宫也不例外。

            明朝初建立时,政府让官府主管养马事务,为了获得足够多的优良马匹,明朝还和满族各部落从事马市交易,目的是为了满族军事的需要??墒潜臼粲谒茄ㄒ蹈愕氖虑?,让官员来办,畜牧业的发展靠行政指令和行政责任来办,用行政办法操作专业事务,其效果可想而知。

            后来明代政府把官办养马事务下放到民间,用免税粮、补贴等办法,鼓励民间养马,省去了官办养马的事务,效果也十分明显??墒前压僭毖淼脑鹑瓮聘傩?,民间养马成了一种不得不完成的差役,加重了民众的负担,一些官员利用交银代养等办法,搜括民财,结果造成民间牧马的逐步衰败,马政出现?;?。

            缺乏了优良的战马这种很实际的作战工具,军队的战斗力必然受到致命影响。

            处于东北地区的少数民族女真族,非常善于养马驯马,到了满族兴起时,骏马遍野,努尔哈赤经常查看战马情况,马壮者赐酒,马弱者鞭责,与明代后期荒于马政的情况形成鲜明对比,明朝之所以被精于养马驯马的少数民族满族击败,实在是理所当然的事情。

            明代后期,官场言必称仁义,具体事务从属于纲常礼教,面对满族一跃千里、训练有素的战马,怎会不纷纷倒下呢?

          免责声明:以上内容源自网络,版权归原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原创版权请告知,我们将尽快删除相关内容。

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