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          平津战役简介 国共三大战略决战的最后一战
          趣历史 2014-03-19 15:02:57

            平津战役简介:平津战役是解放战争时期中国人民解放军东北野战军和华北军区部队,在北平、天津、张家口地区对国民党军队进行的第三个战略性进攻战役,也是战略决战的最后一个大战役。

            在辽沈战役结束、淮海战役正在胜利发展之际,1948年12月上旬至1949年1月31日,东北野战军和华北军区第二、第三兵团共一百万人,联合发动了平津战役。当时,华北国民党傅作义集团除有5万余人分驻归绥和大同外,有兵力50余万人,位于东起北宁路的山海关、西迄平绥路的张家口的约500多公里的狭长地带上,并以塘沽为海上通道口。

            在这部分军队中,属傅作义系统的有17个师(旅),属蒋介石系统的有25个师(旅)。在此之前,蒋介石已提出要傅率部南撤,加强长江防线。傅作义对蒋介石的排斥异己深怀戒心,不愿南撤。这时,傅作义所部为解放军在东北的胜利所震慑,已成“惊弓之鸟”,但估计东北野战军在辽沈战役后需要有3个月到半年的休整时间,到第二年春天才能入关作战。傅作义根据暂守平津、保持???、扩充实力、以观时变的方针,不断收缩兵力,先后放弃承德、保定、山海关、秦皇岛等地,准备随时从海上南逃或西窜绥远。如果傅作义集团撤走,人民解放军虽可不战而得平津,但国民党长江防线得到加强或保存较多作战力量,这对今后作战是不利的。因此,稳住华北敌军,使它不迅速决策南逃或西窜,就成为能否实现就地歼敌的关键。

            根据中共中央的部署,东北野战军主力在辽沈战役结束后不久,从1948年11月23日起,就提前结束休整,取捷径隐蔽地挥师入关。入关的东北野战军和华军区第二、第三兵团一道,以神速动作,先用“围而不打”或“隔而不围”的办法,完成对北平、天津、张家口之敌的战略包围和战役分割,截断了他们南逃西窜的通路,并调动原驻天津、塘沽的国民党军队第九十二、九十四、一○五军进到北平地区。随后按“先打两头、后取中间”的顺序发起攻击。

            在12月下旬连克西头的新保安、张家口。在新保安歼灭傅作义嫡系主力第三十五军1600人,在张家口歼敌第十一兵团部和第一○五军5.4万余人。1949年1月10日,中共中央决定成立由林彪、罗荣桓、聂荣臻3人组成的平津前线总前委。当东头的天津守敌拒绝接受和平改编后,1月14日,解放军以强大兵力发起对天津的总攻,东北野战军集中5个纵队22个师34万人在刘亚楼指挥下,经过29个小时激战,攻克了这座坚固设防和重兵守备的大城市,天津国民党守军10个师13万人全部被歼,天津警备司令陈长捷被俘。天津解放后,塘沽守敌乘船南逃。

            为了使北平这座举世闻名的古都免遭破坏,解放军在围城后,派出代表同傅作义接触。由于解放军力量的强大和作战部署的迅速完成,由于中共的耐心工作和各界人士的敦促,傅作义终于决心顺应人民的意旨,命令所部出城听候改编。1949年1月31日,傅部移动完毕,解放军进入北平。北平宣告和平解放。

            平津战役历时64天,共歼灭和改编国民党军队52万余人,基本上解放了华北全境。在绥远,有意地保存下一部分国民党军队,经过相当时间,在董其武率领下于1949年9月通电起义,接受改编。这样,对今后如何解决国民党军队便有了天津、北平、绥远三种方式。

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