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          淞沪会战:15万国军为何抵挡不住5万日军的进攻?
          趣历史 2015-09-14 15:47:50

            15万保卫国都的国民党军队对阵5万攻城日军,人数三倍于敌,仅抵抗12天便土崩瓦解!当时,中日之间的国力对比,军力差距是全方位的。蒋介石深知,仅凭中国一家之力应对日本进攻,打平都是奢望。唯有将中日争端升格为国际问题,引发列强对日本的强力干涉,弱势的中国才能逃过一劫。在这一大背景下,已被逼向墙角的蒋介石只能做鱼死网破的殊死一搏,即选择在合适的时间、合适的地点,与日本进行一场决战。拉欧美列强乃至苏联搅入中日纷争,令欧美大规模援助中国、武装中国。如此,中国才有希望转败为胜。

            出于这一目的,蒋介石将中日决战之地选在上海。首先,上海云集各国侨民,有很多国家的领事馆。一旦中日决战,战火无情,难免要触犯各国利益,欧美列强怎会无动于衷?其次,上海处于蒋介石控制的江浙核心地区,既是蒋介石政府的财赋重地,又是国民党军队易于集结征调之所。1937年8月,“八·一三淞沪会战”打响,蒋介石调集75万人马与日本海陆空30万军队决战上海。军队人数虽多于日本,但因两国军力的综合实力差距过于悬殊,苦战3个月后,最终,此次会战以国民党军队伤亡30万精锐、被迫撤退的惨重代价告终。而拥有全面优势的日军仅伤亡4万余人,蒋介石精心打造的数个德械师也惨遭重创。

            淞沪会战后,被打得支离破碎的国民党军队退守南京一线。而日军则趁胜追击,剑指蒋介石政府的首都——南京。蒋介石并非没有预料到南京之战的结局,但他当时还在做国联调解之梦,期待日本能悬崖勒马。他甚至还抱有这样一种幻想:只要保卫南京的国民党部队能守上一到两个月,国际形势就有可能发生重大变化,包括苏联在内的声援中国的国家就有可能出兵迫使日本收手。蒋介石希望军队能守一两个月,实际上,淞沪之战的虎头蛇尾令国民党军队元气大伤,军队的战斗力、士气直线下滑。蒋介石匆忙拼凑起15万军队保卫首都南京,但这15万人多为从淞沪之战溃退下来的残兵败将,其中还有数万毫无战斗经验的新兵。这使得南京保卫战未战将先怯、未战兵已慌,大敌当前,众官兵不仅未众志成城,反成惊弓之鸟。最后的溃败也就难以避免了。

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