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          清朝官员分析鸦片战争:火炮命中率低

            第一次鸦片战争是中国近代史上一件大事,以此事件为标志,中国开始进入半殖民地半封建社会,其起因、过程和结果大家都已经很熟悉,无须赘言。至于其失败原因,主要是因为清政府的腐败无能,像林则徐这样有眼光有魄力的英雄也无力回天,同时,也和西方列强的船坚炮利有很大关系,中国在武器上吃了亏。

            不过,对于远去的历史,除了从大节上进行把握,还要从细节上深入了解,尤其是当事人的回忆录和笔记,能从技术上揭开这场战争胜败的原因。例如当时负责广西防务的梁章钜,就对清军为何失败进行了军事技术上的探讨,我们来看看他的一手资料。

            积极防御派:为抗敌尽心部署和制造火炮

            梁章钜在近代史上的名气远不如林则徐,然而,他也是一个响当当的英雄人物,既有学问,又很务实,对于推动中国的进步,做了很大的贡献。

            梁章钜跟林则徐一样,也是福建人,祖籍长乐,出生在福州。他是个优等生,15岁中秀才,20岁中举人,28岁中进士,44岁的时候就入了军机处。在考场上,他一路顺风,没有苦熬,年纪轻轻就解决了功名问题。功名早一点解决,就可以早从读书考试中抽身出来办实事。

            尽管仕途上很顺,但梁章钜并没有沾沾自喜,也没有因此而沉浸在个人的成就里,他跟林则徐一样,对于当时英国的鸦片流入极为忧心,因此差不多在林则徐上书禁烟的时候,他也上书,提出了同样的要求。当林则徐在广州禁鸦片的时候,作为配合,梁章钜也在广西梧州一带捉拿烟贩,铲除罂粟种植地。由于他的雷厉风行,禁烟措施颇为见效。虽然其知名度没有林则徐的虎门销烟大,但同样也是利于民族之举。

            


            梁章钜肖像

            英国因为鸦片发动了战争,当时的梁章钜在广西梧州一带负责防务,因此,他可算是第一次鸦片战争的当事人和亲历者。1841年,英国海军在广东沿海一带发起进攻时,在广西的梁章钜连忙运送了四十座大炮支援广州防务,据其回忆笔记《归田琐记》中的一篇名为炮说的文章记载,这些大炮的规格在八百觔至三千觔之间,前后选运大炮,自三千觔至八百觔不等,凡四十座,解往广州协济。

            送这些大炮的时候,梁章钜也向朝廷奏明,等战役结束之后,这些炮还是要运回广西的。

            然而,可惜的是,广州一战后,这些火炮全都下落不明,据说要么被英国人破坏,要么被沉到海里去了。这让梁章钜很心痛,他痛斥主持防务的琦善是开门揖盗。

            同一年,梁章钜调任江苏巡抚,在上?;嵬咸岫匠禄杉忧糠烙な?。他们在吴淞海岸一带巡查火炮部署情况,当时统计火炮有百来座。同时,他又命令在上??煨屡谑?,准备工作还是做得很充足的。因此,他和陈化成主持防御工作时,英国的舰队不敢冒犯,一度绕开。

            只是没想到,梁章钜离任后,两江总督牛鉴贪生怕死,临阵逃脱,丢失镇江。又一个事实让梁章钜心痛不已,原来部署好制造的新炮全部丢失,次年英夷长驱直入,城内外各炮尽归乌有。

            数次交战失利,让清廷很多人对英国的火炮心怀恐惧,认为中国的火炮杀伤力和射程,不如英国火炮,议者遂谓中土之炮,远不敌英夷之炮。梁章钜却对此说不,他认为不是武器不如,而是另有原因。

            抗英技术派:清军失利在于火炮命中率太低

            梁章钜作为抗英战争的亲自指挥者,对武器论不以为然。他认为那些恐英论是没有理由的,没有讲到根子上,此非探本之言也。当然,梁章钜这样说也不是出于盲目自大,也是从技术角度出发进行反驳的。他认为英国炮舰之所以得逞,在于其火炮先声夺人。在炮说一文中,梁章钜列举了实例,认为英国炮舰上的火炮最吓人的是桅杆顶端的飞炮,这种火炮发射的时候火光迸射,纵横一二丈,样子挺吓人的,厦门和宝山的失陷,就是飞炮导致的。其实,这种火炮唬人有余,摧毁力不足,攻敌则不足,用以惊敌则有余,但两江总督牛鉴就被英军的火炮吓跑了。指挥官一听到飞炮声,一看到飞炮的气势,就把持不住,吓得先跑,自然连累全军,导致战败。梁章钜认为战败原因,很大部分就在于指挥官被飞炮吓坏了。

            那么,为何清军这边的火炮敌不过英军的火炮呢?梁章钜先列举了战争中火炮的损失情况,他做了一个统计,在第一次鸦片战争期间,各省的火炮约有两千多座,不算少了。然而,在虎门、厦门、定海、镇海、宝山、镇江失陷后,以上各处所属的每个省份损失火炮四百多座,其中被英国战舰夺走一千五六百座,八成是被掠走了。其实,英国人愿意掳走火炮,说明这些火炮还是管用的。那为什么失败呢?

            梁章钜作了冷静的分析:不是威力不足,而是命中率太低。他举例说,在厦门一战中,清军开炮二百余发,只有一发击中英国军舰,正好打在火药舱上,大艘轰裂沉海,一艘大军舰爆炸起火,接而裂开、沉没,英军撤退。仅仅打中一炮就能击退敌军,如果命中率再高一点,则战果更为乐观。

            


            清朝火炮

            他又举例定海之战。1841年9月26日,英军进攻舟山群岛,当时的总兵葛云飞等主持防御。清军开炮数百发,只有一发命中敌舰,击中的是火轮头桅,导致英军舰只倾斜,一时撤退。一炮之威居然如此,可惜没能连续发威,梁章钜感叹:数百炮仅得一炮之力。

            因此,梁章钜说,但使炮发能中,则我炮亦足破夷。他又列举了英军的装备情况:夷艘及火轮船,多不过数十,大小杉板船,亦不过数十,舰只不多,如果在数百炮之内,有十发命中,就可以摧毁其数十艘船只,每条船歼敌数十人,综合起来对于敌军造成的损伤就很可观了,甚至可以扭转战局,击退侵略者??上挥屑偕?,梁章钜透露说:虎门的火炮都是从国外买进来的,二百多座,规格大的达到九千斛,居然没有击伤敌人的一艘船只,何以一船未伤?令人叹息。当然,守虎门的将士作战都奋不顾身,不少英勇牺牲。具体战败因素还可以研究。

            也有人反驳梁章钜,火炮命中率不高不是技术不行,而是陆地上的炮位比较固定,而敌人的舰只是游走的,很难瞄准,以呆炮击活船,何能必中?梁章钜也否定了这种说法,并亲自考察了宝山炮台的位置,发现这里的炮台并没有突出水面成为敌人的活靶子,也不会陷入敌人的包围,适合防守,而难以攻克。他和抗英将领陈化成还感叹这座炮台设计合理,克成天险之形。结果在宝山一战中,英军飞炮一响,清军指挥官吓破了胆子,全军溃散,设计良好的炮台形同虚设。

            第一次鸦片战争期间,清朝和英国的火炮,到底有没有技术上的差距?这是个严肃的科学问题,本文不下结论,但梁章钜作为亲历人,其经验之言应该还是值得借鉴的。

            炮战成功案例

            僧格林沁以大炮轰退英法联军舰队

            在清朝炮台与列强舰队作战的历史当中,也有成功的案例,如1859年的大沽口之战就是典型。那一年,英法驻华公使乘坐所谓换约舰队从上海沿水路北上,这次的舰队比第一次鸦片战争的英国舰队强大得多,包括一艘巡洋舰和13艘炮舰,行驶至大沽口时,无视主权硬闯,主持大沽口防务的僧格林沁下令炮击英法舰队,结果击毁英军战舰3艘,英海军伤亡四百六十余人,英海军司令贺布还受了重伤。

            这是中国近代御侮的第一次大胜利,估计清军在此役中的命中率已经大为提高,战斗力大为提升,当时梁章钜已去世,如果泉下有知,得知这个战果,一定会含笑。

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