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          解析三国著名战役官渡之战的历史背景
          趣历史 2016-10-18 14:36:04

            东汉末年,轰轰烈烈的黄巾起义虽然被镇压下去了,但它却沉重地打击了汉朝地主阶级的统治,使早已腐朽不堪的东汉政权分崩离析,名存实亡。在镇压黄巾起义的过程中,各地州郡大吏独揽军政大权,地主豪强也纷纷组织“部曲”(私人武装),占据地盘, 形成大大小小的割据势力,转入争权夺利、互相兼并的长期战争,造成中原地区“白骨露于野、千里无鸡鸣”的凄惨景象。

          搜狗截图16年10月18日1435_72.jpg

              当时的割据势力:主要有河北的袁绍、河内的张杨、兖豫的曹操、徐州的吕布、扬州的袁术、江东的孙策、荆州的刘表、幽州的公孙瓒、南阳的张绣等。形成群雄并起的局面,在这些割据势力的连年征战中,袁绍、曹操两大集团逐步壮大起来。[1] 公元196年(建安元年),曹操迎献帝,迁都许县,自始挟天子以令诸侯(“奉天子而征四方”),威势大增。他先后击败吕布、袁术,占据了兖州、徐州以及部分豫州、司隶。公元199年(建安四年),袁绍最终战胜公孙瓒,据幽州、冀州、青州、并州,尽有河北之地,意欲南向以争天下。

              这样,华北最重要的两个政治军事集团,决战势所难免。起初形势袁强曹弱。袁绍已无后顾之忧,地广人众,可动员的兵力在十万以上。[2] 曹操则是处于四战之地,除了北方的袁绍,关中诸将尚在观望,南边刘表、张绣不肯降服,东南孙策蠢蠢欲动,暂时依附的刘备也是貌合神离。尽管如此,当时的一些有识之士,包括曹操的谋士荀彧、郭嘉,还在张绣麾下的贾诩,以及凉州从事杨阜,在综合分析了曹、袁的优劣后,认为袁绍外宽内忌,好谋无决,他们都看好曹操,认为局势会向着有利于曹的方向变化。

          搜狗截图16年10月18日1435_73.jpg

              公元198年(建安三年)十月,河内郡太守张杨欲出军救援吕布时却为部下杨丑所杀,曹操解除进攻徐州吕布的后顾之忧,十一月,吕布被曹操消灭;公元199年(建安四年),张杨旧部眭固杀杨丑,欲北投袁绍,曹操派史涣、曹仁击破眭固,取得河内郡,把势力范围扩张到黄河以北[3] ,六月,袁术病死,十一月张绣投降曹操[4] 。刘表坐观成败[5] ,孙策保守江东。局势变得更加明朗。


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