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          揭秘甲午海战清军装备 炮内装沙子并非腐败
          趣历史 2017-05-10 15:17:46

            经典影片《甲午风云》是1962年摄制的。片中,邓世昌命令致远舰上的水兵将弹头拔下,从炮弹中倒出的竟然是沙子??吹秸庖磺榻?,每个中华儿女必然无比愤慨,没想到清廷的腐朽竟至于此。

            然而,为什么大战在即,北洋海军的炮弹中却装满了沙子呢?原来,当时北洋海军各舰使用的炮弹主要有两种,一种是开花弹,另一种则是实心弹??ǖ牡纺谔畛涞氖腔鹨┗蛘ㄒ?,击中目标后会发生爆炸;而实心弹的弹头内则很少装药或不装药,更多时候是填充泥土、沙石来配重。实心弹击中目标后当然不会爆炸,其作战意图是凭借重力加速度击穿敌舰引起进水。

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            我们在影片中看到的,实际上就是这种实心弹,它虽然不会爆炸、威力小,但却是北洋海军最常用的炮弹。当时,中国的近代军工已经起步,最成规模的是江南机器制造总局和天津机器局,但这两家厂主要是生产陆军用的小口径行营炮、步枪以及相关弹药,对中、大口径火炮所需的炮弹,只能制造技术难度相对较低的实心弹,而开花弹则要依赖进口。

            据北洋海军总教习、德国人汉纳根在甲午海战后报告,北洋旗舰定远舰在战前只补充了 55颗国产普通开花弹,平均一门炮顶多分得十几枚。在海战中,仅一个半小时这类炮弹就打光了。剩余的3个多小时里,定远舰的305毫米巨炮只能发射根本不会爆炸的实心弹。

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            而影片中邓世昌试图去撞沉的日本吉野舰,海战结束后尚剩余120毫米和150毫米炮弹1251发,各种机关炮弹6095发,弹药仍旧极其充足。并且,日本海军用的所有炮弹,均是开花弹。

            北洋海军极为稀缺的开花弹,无论是外购还是自造,弹内填充的都是黑火药。这种中国古代方士在炼丹时偶然发现的化学物质,主要成分是木炭和硫磺,其工作原理类似于过年时燃放的爆竹。用这种黑火药来充当炸药,只能通过爆炸时产生的冲击波和炸开的炮弹碎片来杀伤敌军、破坏敌舰,其威力极为有限。这也就是甲午海战之前的历次重大海战中,从来没有一艘军舰是被炮弹直接击沉的原因所在。

            1891年,工程师下濑雅允成功配制出了以苦味酸为主要成分的烈性炸药,定名“下濑火药”。1893年1月28日,日本海军正式开始换装填充了下濑火药的炮弹。这种填充了下濑火药的炮弹威力极大。它灵敏度高,即便命中细小的绳索都能引发爆炸;爆炸后除形成冲击波和炮弹碎片外,还会伴随有中心温度高达上千度的大火,足以把钢铁点燃;爆炸形成的火焰会像汽油着火一般四散流动,就算在水中都能持续燃烧一段时间。

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            1894年9月17日午后,满载新式炮弹的12艘日舰与北洋海军主力在黄海大东沟遭遇,经过5小时鏖战,参战的12艘中国军舰4沉2逃,其余被重创以致难以修复。而中国军舰的炮弹命中率虽也不低,但却无法直接对日舰造成大的损坏,唯一明显的战果是镇远发炮击中日本旗舰松岛舰的弹药房,引起连环爆炸,形成大火,导致军舰重创。

          免责声明:以上内容源自网络,版权归原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原创版权请告知,我们将尽快删除相关内容。

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