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          甲午战前满清朝野曾鼓吹所谓东征 教训一下日本
          趣历史 2017-06-08 09:34:45

            甲午中日战争前夕,清王朝一直沉浸在天朝上国的迷梦之中,长期存在的对日文化优势,蒙蔽了清王朝官僚、知识分子的眼睛,对于日本露出来的不轨野心,清朝朝野弥漫的是“好好教训一下日本”的声音。虽然当时一些人已经摸到了清王朝衰弱腐败的脉搏,但是几乎没有人预测到,清王朝在甲午战争中输得会如此狼狈。本文选取了甲午海战前清朝在内政外交上的一些事件,看清王朝如何在骄傲自大心态的驱使下,在军事外交上接连留下败笔,并被蓄谋已久的日本借机抓住了把柄。

            傲慢看待新生日本

            鸦片战争之后,虽然一些开明的官僚士大夫开始认真审视世界,然而他们注视的重点是西方列强,并不是日本。历史上一直以来的文明高位,滋养了中国人的中华文化优越感,一般中国士大夫把日本称之为“蕞尔三岛”的“东夷小国”,这种傲慢的态度造成了对日本的了解不够。1868年日本明治维新这么重大的事件,并没有引起中国朝野的关注,知晓者则心怀蔑视地批评这是一个朝令夕改、改变风俗、荒唐无稽的儿戏般的政治变革。1874年,日本发动侵台战争,掠夺清王朝白银50万两,暴露了侵略野心,但是却没有引起清政府高度的警惕。当时,有很多出版物,如《日本杂记》讽刺日本是“东头西脚,西脚东头,不成东西”。甚至有人大肆鼓吹征日论,帮助日本恢复幕藩体制。

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            法国驻华公使施阿兰对此评论道:“当时这个国家对自己的前途似乎毫不关心,它同列强和平共处,丝毫没有觉察到正在强大起来的日本?!笔┌⒗蓟辜绦兰?a href="http://www.vaperma.com/renwu/lihongzhang/" >李鸿章道:“他可能是唯一能够真正理解一个现代化国家需要和必要设备的中国人。他却宁可一直躺在骄傲自大上面,轻视可能存在的敌人,满足于幻想中的强大与丰富的资源?!?/p>

            史料记载了一件小事,可以反映当时清朝的心态。1876年1月,年仅30岁的日本驻清国特命全权公使森有礼途经天津,满身西式装束的他拜访了53岁的李鸿章。李鸿章说:“阁下赞赏模仿欧风,废弃旧来服制,犹如将自国的独立委身于欧洲的制度,岂不是遭人唾弃,羞耻之事?”森有礼答道:“对外来事物的取舍并无他人强迫,完全是我国人民自己喜好的事情,故没有丝毫羞耻之处,我国古来极力吸收和采用亚洲、欧美及其他各国的长处为己所用?!崩詈枵伦孕诺厮档溃骸安还夜鋈徊换峤腥绱吮涓?,只是不得不在武器、铁道、电信等机械方面,吸收西洋的东西,因为这些东西正是那些国家最优秀之处?!?/p>

            “长崎事件”加剧日本反清情绪

            清朝不仅在思想上鄙视日本,在实际行动上也一直在寻找机会对日本“宣示国威”。这其中,“长崎事件”在清日关系史中极为敏感,堪称两国关系恶化的一个导火线。1886年8月,北洋水师提督丁汝昌率领定远、镇远、济远、威远等战舰组成的舰队,在朝鲜海域演习完毕后,受命于8月1日抵达长崎,名为维修战舰,实则宣示军威。8月13日,数名登岸购物休闲的清朝水兵在丸山游廓寄合町的贷座敷妓院楼内,和日本巡警发生斗殴。15日下午,约300名水兵上岸购物休闲,已经积怨的清朝水兵与日本巡警再次发生冲突,直至引发了200余名水兵与更多当地日本人、巡警之间的群殴。最后调查统计,日本巡警死亡2人,伤26人,北洋水师水兵死亡5人,伤44人。

            长崎事件是清王朝宣示国威的意外插曲,事件最后以两国间互相赔偿了事。事件最终以双方的妥协而不是清廷的单方面退让收场,让一些人认为这是清廷在鸦片战争之后的第一次外交胜利。但是长崎事件的影响远不止于此,在日本当局挑动下,日本民间的反华、仇华、排华的情绪被煽动起来。日本民间升腾起一股“清国威胁论”,日本媒体形容北洋舰队的到来,堪比江户时期美国舰队的黑船来航。仅仅围绕定远舰,日本国内就出现过《不如归》、《不沉的定远》、《第二的元寇》等数部小说,宣扬勇敢的日本海军如何去击沉定远舰,连一些懵懂无知的儿童也玩起打定远、镇远的游戏。

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            1887年3月14日,日本天皇颁布敕令“立国之急在我海防,一日不可迟缓?!被适易挪?0万日圆作为海防捐款,半年之内从首相伊藤博文到各地贵族、富豪、大名,为海防捐款已达200万日圆,日本政府还发行超过了1700万日圆的海军公债。日本提速了1884年制定的海军建设十年计划,经过了8年发展,海军实力实际已经超过了北洋舰队。

            此外,长崎事件中还产生另一个恶果——清朝的情报大门被打开。一个名叫吴大五郎的日本人在打斗现场,偶然拾到了一本北洋水师水兵丢失的小字典,小字典中的汉文字纵横两侧,标注了0-9不同的小数字。日本情报部门立刻判定这是清军电报用的汉字译电本,通过分析这些汉字与数字,初步掌握了破解清王朝密码的基本方法。为了彻底破解密码,日本外相陆奥宗光故意设圈套,提供给了清王朝驻日公使汪凤藻一份汉字书写的长度适中的政府文书。次日日本电信课就顺利截获了公使馆发给总理衙门的电报。时任电信课长的佐藤爱麿利用这一汉字内容完全知晓的电报,仔细研究,终于破获了清王朝公使馆的密码。

            这一秘密仅仅为佐藤爱麿、伊藤博文、陆奥宗光等有限几个日本人知晓,直到伊藤博文被刺杀30年后,随着伊藤博文遗著《机密日清战争》出版,才在有限范围内公开此事。令人惊讶的是,对情报工作麻痹大意的清王朝,在此后的外交、军事事件中,甚至包括以后的和谈过程中,竟然没有更改密码,清王朝机密的军事外交信息长期被摆在劲敌眼皮底下。

            为此,甲午中日战争后,日本政府秘密授予佐藤爱麿三等勋章和养老年金的特别奖赏,后来佐藤青云直上,曾经担任7年的日本驻美大使。

            点燃战火的“金玉均暗杀事件”

            甲午战争,除了中日两国外,朝鲜也扮演着非常重要的角色,朝鲜问题也是日本发动侵略战争的突破口。甲午战前,清王朝在朝鲜仍公开实施援朝抑日的政策,这其中“金玉均暗杀事件”,再一次被日本利用起来。

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            金玉均是朝鲜近代有名的政治家、改革家,最为著名的身份是朝鲜开化党的领袖,与日本关系亲密,1882年至1884年间曾三度赴日本考察。1884年他领导开化党联合日本发动的甲申政变昙花一现,被清军镇压,不得不逃亡日本,成为朝鲜主政者闵妃等人的仇敌。1894年3月,闵妃派出的刺客洪钟宇,以重金诱使金玉均在上海与清王朝官员李经芳会晤,骗得金玉均来到上海。在上海美租界的日本旅馆内,洪钟宇破门而入,连开三枪枪杀了金玉均。

            日本政府多次派人想引渡洪钟宇,运走金玉均尸体,但都被拒绝。清王朝一直支持朝鲜压制国内的亲日势力,为此特派军舰威靖号专程将洪钟宇本人以及金玉均遗体送回了朝鲜,朝鲜不仅在杨花津刑场将金玉均的尸体凌迟暴尸,还处理了金玉均家族。这一事件令日本朝野上下颜面无光,恼羞成怒,纷纷谴责日本政府的软弱。

            5月20日,日本议员犬养毅等各界人士约2000人在东京浅草寺举行金玉均葬礼。葬礼上众人声称将金玉均遗体运回朝鲜是对日本极大侮辱。随后,“征清论”等宣传在日本媒体上被连日渲染,日本政府和民间在挑战清朝上逐渐形成一致。在日本,很多人也把“金玉均暗杀事件”与朝鲜东学党农民起义,共同视为甲午中日战争爆发的直接原因。

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