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          长平之战中赵国不换廉颇 战争结局会改变吗?
          趣历史 2017-06-19 16:53:00

            长久以来,喜欢研究中国历史的朋友在了解到长平之战之后,一直都在为廉颇乃至赵国扼腕叹息,认为赵孝成王如果不听信秦相范睢反间计,不以纸上谈兵赵括代替沙场老将廉颇,也许赵国能有统一天下的机会,真是情况是这样吗?

            长平之战是战国后期战争规模最大的战争之一,它直接影响了秦赵以及战国整个形势的改变,从此,秦国基本上一家独大,六国力量衰微,偶尔在六国合纵联军之时给秦国造成暂时性影响,但终因六国心力不齐,最终一个个被秦国消灭。

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            公元前269年,秦昭襄王不满赵惠文王违背盟约,出兵悍然攻赵地阏与。王召廉颇而问曰:可救不?对曰:“道远险狭,难救?!庇终倮殖硕恃?,乐乘对如廉颇言。又召问赵奢,奢对曰:“其道远险狭,譬之犹两鼠于穴中,将勇者胜?!闭酝跤谑橇钫陨萋示?,救韩国。后赵奢纵兵击秦师,秦师大败,解阏与而还。

            从史记中的记载我们可以看到,廉颇作战风格以沉稳为主,不擅长冒险,更不擅长打无把握之战。且廉颇主要与齐、魏、燕等过长期作战,而这些国家在赵武灵王胡服骑射之后,国力逐渐衰弱。而秦国在商鞅变法之后,南取巴蜀、黔中,国力比赵国要高出许多,战略物资丰富。

            公元前262年,秦国进攻韩地上党。上党的韩国守军孤立无援,太守冯亭便将上党献给了赵国。

            公元前260年农历四月,王龁向长平的赵国军队发动进攻,这时名将赵奢已死,蔺相如病重,执掌军事事务的只有廉颇。于是,赵孝成王命廉颇统帅20万赵军阻秦军于长平。

            四月,龁因攻赵。赵使廉颇将。赵军士卒犯秦斥兵,秦斥兵斩赵裨将茄。

            六月,陷赵军,取二鄣四尉。

            七月,赵军筑垒壁而守之。秦又攻其垒,取二尉,败其阵,夺西垒壁。廉颇坚壁以待秦,秦数挑战,赵兵不出。赵王既怒廉颇军多失亡,军数败,又反坚壁不敢战,而又闻秦反间之言,因使赵括代廉颇将以击秦。秦闻马服子将,乃阴使武安君白起为上将军。而王龁为尉裨将,令军中有敢泄武安君将者斩。

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            至九月,赵卒不得食四十六日,皆内阴相杀食。来攻秦垒,欲出。为四队,四五复之,不能出。其将军赵括出锐卒自搏战,秦军射杀赵括。赵国军队因无主将指挥,四十万士兵向秦将白起投降。白起用欺骗的手段,命令秦国军队将赵国降兵全部活埋,只留下年纪尚小的240名士兵放回赵国。

            长平之战历时三年,战争初期廉颇与秦军僵持两年,导致赵国国内已经陷入无粮可食的局面。同时将本来善于野战的赵军用于防守战,让秦军顺利包抄赵国后方,不断骚扰赵国的粮道,让赵国雪上加霜,完全失去了主动权,同时由于赵国外交上的失败,导致赵国陷于外无援兵,内无粮草的死地,最终导致赵国失去了扭转赵国命运的机会。

          免责声明:以上内容源自网络,版权归原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原创版权请告知,我们将尽快删除相关内容。

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