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          为什么说长平之战是历史上最惨烈的战争?
          趣历史 2017-08-31 16:29:30

            古代战争都是以冷兵器为主,而冷兵器时代的交锋都是肉搏战,极其残酷。纵观整个古代历史之中,规模最大、场面最惨烈的战争一定是战国时期的长平之战,此战之后,战败方赵国被坑杀40万将士,而战胜方秦国也同样付出了20万以上将士的伤亡。那么,此战当时有多惨烈,史书上都是一笔带过,没有详细描述,所以对于此战人们仅仅停留在想象中。

            此战是发生在公元前262年,当时秦国攻陷了大片韩国领土,韩国地方长官不但不降,还把上党郡送给了赵国。当时赵国的平阳君赵豹认为,上党郡绝对不能要,否则将会遭到秦国的疯狂报复,而平原君赵胜却认为,白给的为何不要,要知道即使出动百万大军也不一定就能攻下一座城池,所以上党郡一定要接受。

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            赵孝成王最后采纳了平原君赵胜的建议,并派他去接受平原君,由此拉开了长平之战的序幕。战争初期双方对阵将来是赵国的老将廉颇和秦国的王龁,老将廉颇从一开始就采取守势,所以双方打的一直是持久战。后来,秦国丞相范雎利用反间计,让赵孝成王把廉颇撤掉,换上了纸上谈兵赵括,而此时秦国也偷偷把主将换成了战神白起。

            赵括一上任,就一改廉颇的作战方针,采取主动出击的策略,而白起则命令秦军佯装战败溃退,最后,白起把赵军引到预先埋伏好的地方,派出精兵二万五千人切断赵军的后路,令派五千骑兵,直冲赵军大营,把四十万赵军切成两段。赵括这时候才知中计,只好筑起营垒坚守,等待救兵。秦国又发兵切断赵国救兵和运粮的道路。

            赵括的军队在内无粮草,外无救兵的情况下,坚守了四十多天,将士叫苦连天,无心作战。赵括本想带兵突围,结果被秦军乱箭射死,赵军在群龙无首的情况下纷纷投降。白起说:“赵国士兵反复无常,不如全部杀掉,以绝后患”。于是白起用欺骗的手段,把赵国四十万将士活埋。

            那么,白起是如何坑杀这40万赵国降军的,要知道,是40万人,如果坑杀,那要挖多大个坑,所以对于此事历史学家一直争论不休,怀疑其真实性。但是在1995年,5月12号,对于此战的真相有了重大发现,当时在山西高平城西北一个叫永禄村的地方,村民挖出了大量森森白骨,专家赶到后,确定这就是2000多年前,白起坑杀赵军的现场。

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            随着挖掘工作的展开,专家发现,这些赵军尸骨重垒交错,有的胳膊大腿有明显断裂的痕迹,应该是刀砍后留下的,有的胸腔内遗有毒箭头,还有的仅有躯干而无头颅,从种种迹象来看,赵军绝非活埋,而是先杀死后再掩埋的。

            长平之战虽然过去了两千多年,但战争的悲凉和雄浑却仍然回荡在杀谷,白起也因为此战被奉为杀神??赡苁且蛭甭咎?,白起最终的结局也是以悲剧收场,因受到秦王猜忌,被秦王赐死。

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