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          为啥万历皇帝连续28年不上朝:国家却安然无恙

           万历皇帝朱翊钧,明穆宗的第三子。隆庆六年,穆宗驾崩,年仅10岁的朱翊钧即位,第二年改年号为万历。从1572年到1620年,万历做了48年的皇帝。令世人哗然的是,在这48年中,万历皇帝连续28年不上朝。

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            于是有人说,万历皇帝朱翊钧是历史上最懒惰的皇帝!28年不理政事!其实不是的,把这一切归咎于懒惰,是不对的。如果万历帝是因为懒而荒于国事,那他在位前期种种励精图治亲力亲为的现象又作何解释?万历皇帝一生中有三个得力助手:慈圣皇太后、冯保张居正。

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            慈圣皇太后有着仁慈宽厚的母爱,万历皇帝对她十分尊重,偶尔她会参与政务,辅佐万历。冯保,万历叫他“大?!?,是万历皇帝的得力助手,也是他从小到大的一个伴侣。冯保大多时候担任的是管理监督皇帝生活上的事务的一个角色,比如小皇帝表现不好的时候,他会上报给皇太后。对万历影响最大的,是张居正。作为万历皇帝的第一严师,张居正做到了极致。在万历即位以后,政治上的事多半由张居正和他一起处理,正是这种和谐的君臣关系,带来了十年社会稳定经济繁荣的“万历中兴”。

            万历对张居正形成了极大的依赖感,以至于张居正死后,他无所适从,开始了怠政。这是一个原因。但不是最主要的。万历怠政二十八年,最大的原因是他对文官集团的彻底失望,因为失望,才奋力抵抗和排斥。明代的文官,大都以谋私利为己任。大多数文官的态度是,只要在大是大非上站对位置,平时收一些小恩小惠,无伤大雅。关键是文官集团权力很大。国本之争,是压垮骆驼的最后一根稻草。从这以后万历再也不与文官集团共事。

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            那么,为何这近30年间依然社会稳定,内战外战全胜?其实说是怠政,不如说是躲避文官。不上朝是为了眼不见心不烦,并不代表不理政事。相反地,这反而在一定程度上提高了行政效率,万历皇帝可以更加专心地处理国事。这就是为什么万历后期,还有“万历三大征”这样的功绩。内有平定蒙古人叛乱的宁夏之役,外有抗击日本的朝鲜之役??杀氖?,万历末期,文官集团越来越嚣张,发生了内乱,朝廷支离破碎。女真族趁虚而入,明朝的气数将尽。

            所以,这就是为什么大多数人都在说万历皇帝是千古罪人时,也有人说,万历皇帝是千古一帝。他才华横溢,精明武断,却有着常人不能理解的痛苦,只能留给世人一个苍凉的背影。

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